Academics


Course Descriptions

Courses with the following prefixes can be used to satisfy the liberal arts requirement:  HUM, EDU, ENG, ART, PHI, ETH, PSY, HIS, MUS, SOC; as well as BHS 230 and BHS 350. COM courses at the 100 and 200 level can also be used to satisfy the liberal arts requirement.

Courses with a prefix of LIT are cross-listed as ENG. Students wishing to have the ENG number appear on their transcript should contact the Registrar’s office.

HUM to ENG Prefix: For students who complete the entire 3-semester Humanities Sequence (Hum 101, Hum 102, and Hum 201) at ACPHS, the prefix of one course in the sequence may be changed from HUM to ENG (upon request to the registrar).

Courses with a “G” at end of prefix and number are graduate courses. Graduate courses are numbered as 600 or higher. Graduate courses numbered as 600-699 are designated as introductory or first year graduate courses, courses numbered 700-799 are considered to be intermediate graduate courses and courses numbered 800-899 are advanced graduate courses. Graduate credit can only be awarded for courses numbered as 600 level or higher. Courses at the 500 level are higher level professional courses (PharmD).

Graduate students cannot receive credit for undergraduate (400 or lower), however graduate courses can be cross-listed and offered simultaneously with an undergraduate (300 or 400 level) or professional course (500 level), as long as the distinctions between the graduate offering and the undergraduate/professional course are explained in the course proposal and approved by the appropriate curriculum committees. Undergraduate and professional students may enroll in graduate courses (600 level or higher) and receive either graduate or undergraduate/professional credit.

Art (ART) Ethics (ETH) Public Health (BSS, PBH)
Biomedical/Health Sciences (BHS) General (GEN)  Pharmacy (PHD)
Biology (BIO) Social Sciences (HHS)  Philosophy and Religion (PHI) 
Chemistry (CHE) History (HIS) Pharmacy (PHM) 
Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Rotations (CLK) Health Outcomes and Informatics (HOI)  Physics (PHY)
Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) Humanities (HUM) Pharmaceutical Sciences (PSC) 
Computer Science (CMP) Integrated Problem Solving (IPS) Pharmacy Skills (PSL)
Communications (COM)  Literature (LIT) Psychology (PSY)
Cytotechnology (CYT)  Mathematics (MAT) Pharmacotherapy/Pharmacology/
Medicinal Chemistry (PTP)
Economics (ECN) Music (MUS) Sociology (SOC)
Education (EDU) Pharmacy Administration (PAD)  Union Graduate College (UGC)

Art

ART 105
Introduction to Drawing (formerly LAS 141). This course assumes that anyone can learn to draw better if they first learn to see better. Following Betty Edwards’ Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, the course will present the different problems people encounter when trying to draw what they see (or think they see). Class time is primarily spent drawing, although there are some brief quizzes on the reading. Students keep a sketchbook outside of class, write three essays and one museum paper, participate in biweekly critiques and turn in a portfolio of drawings and papers at the end of the semester. (3)

ART 110
History of Cinema (formerly LAS 261). This course will trace the history of film from its beginnings in the 1890s until today. Through an investigation of the technological, economic, social and aesthetic influences on cinema, the course provides students with a background in film history as well as critical and analytical skills to read not only films but also visual texts. (3)

ART 210 
Masterpieces of Art (formerly LAS 118). This course investigates various masterpieces of Western art,including architecture, painting and sculpture. Each class meeting is devoted to a separate work of art, and students discuss what makes that work a masterpiece. Individual perceptions and reactions are encouraged. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

ART 215
Figure Drawing (formerly LAS 201). The human figure presents special challenges for the artist. This course covers a brief history of the human figure in art and how to draw the figure from the inside out, beginning with studies of the skeleton and muscles, and then copying works of the masters and drawing from a model. (3); Prerequisite: ART 105 Recommended

ART 220 
Museum Experience. Why bother going to a museum when all that old stuff is online anyway? This course offers students the opportunity to explore national, local, and regional art museums, report on the experience, and create not only a virtual exhibit but also a brochure highlighting a museum for future visitors from ACPHS. One-third of the class hours will be in the classroom or on class trips; the rest will be completed individually and online. This elective complements and enhances the three semester Humanities sequence, which focuses on masterpieces of civilization and builds upon the notion, as Lionel Trilling stated, that "there is a certain minimum of our intellectual and spiritual tradition which a man must experience and understand if he is to be called educated.” (3)

Biomedical/Health Sciences 

BHS 201
Medical Terminology. This course will provide a systems approach to learning medical terminology.The course is self-paced and offered online. It will present medical terminology through a unique combination of anatomy and physiology, word-building principles, and phonetic “sounds like” pronunciations. It is well suited for students who want to learn medical terminology in the context of anatomy and physiology. (3);Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor

BHS 230
Sophomore Seminar in Biomedical Technology. The course facilitates the student’s exposure to scientific literature and in developing the ability to critically evaluate the literature in terms of its validity and conclusions. Students are expected to master scientific writing skills, information retrieval, bibliography preparation per accepted scientific convention. Writing skills will be polished and demonstrable through preparation of a research presentation and critique. (3)

BHS 360 
Clinical Anatomy. This course provides a clinical approach to the understanding of human anatomy. Integration of structure and function of organ systems will be emphasized as a way to comprehend pathologic alterations not only to the organ system but to the body as a whole. This approach will focus on the relevant medical terminology, morphology, physiology, biochemistry and clinical anatomic manifestations of disease. At the conclusion of this course, students will possess an anatomic understanding of the human body as it relates to normal physiologic function as well as disease presentation, progression and treatment. Interpretation of basic anatomic findings likely to be reported in commonly used medical imaging techniques such as CAT and MRI scans will be presented. This is an elective for non-BT students. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 121

BHS 365
Introduction to Human Pathology. The purpose of this course is to fill the void between commonly taught descriptive pathology and published treatment guidelines for most common diseases in the US today. This will be accomplished through systemic presentations including topics of pathogenesis, traditional pathologic anatomic alterations, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic mechanisms of major diseases in America. Emphasize will be on pathology as a way to understand the presentation of disease, the diagnosis of disease, and therapeutic outcomes. At the completion of this course, students will be able to interpret the results of frequently ordered laboratory tests (thyroid function tests, liver function tests, arterial blood gases,basic bacterial culture results, basic metabolic and hematologic profiles, lipid profiles, basic serologic tests, and selected molecular diagnostics) in light of common disease states. This is an elective for non-BT students. (3);Prerequisite: BIO 215 or PSC 322

BHS 410
Clinical Correlations for Health Care Professionals. This advanced level course is directed to students who anticipate employment situations in direct patient care. The purpose of this course is to reduce the perceived gap between previously completed course work and its relevance to the patient encounter. To this end, carefully selected clinical cases will serve to illustrate correlative anatomic, pathologic, physiologic, and laboratory findings as they relate to the presentation and treatment of the patient. The concept of differential diagnosis will also be explored. By the completion of this course, students are expected to be able to identify basic common disease presentations including organ system, salient pathology and lab findings, and potential therapy. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 215.

BHS 450 
Senior Seminar in Biotechnology. This is a student-driven course dealing with discussion of contemporary issues and state-of-the-art diagnosis and technology in medicine. The student is required to critically review the literature and present during class time while incorporating knowledge gained through previous years in the didactic and laboratory components. The course culminates in a student-sponsored research symposium open to the college community. (3)

BHS 490 
Independent Study in Biotechnology and Health Sciences. This is a mentor-student proposed elective course project dealing with contemporary issues in biotechnology and medicine. The student under faculty advisement must submit a proposal to the Department Chair for approval. Approval must also be sought if students wish to use this course for remediation of credits.The topic of the course may be didactic, literature review or laboratory research. Only students in their junior and senior years are eligible. (1-3); Prerequisite: Junior or Senior status

BHS 610 G 
Cellular Pathophysiology/Histology I. This course will emphasize the normal microscopic histology and function of epithelia,connective tissue, cartilage and bone, muscle, nerve, blood vessels, respiratory system, female reproductive system, skin,lymphatic system, gastrointestinal system, urinary system, male reproductive system, and endocrine system. Information in this course serves as a basis to appreciate of altered microanatomy caused by pathologic forces. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 214, BIO 216, BIO 235 or equivalent

BHS 620 G 
Cellular Pathophysiology/Histology II. This course is the continuation of Cellular Pathology and Histology I. Fundamental concepts of general pathology with an emphasis placed on inflammatory and neoplastic states of man are taught by sequential organ system analysis. This course also complements concurrent courses in cytotechnology and molecular diagnostics. Students are expected to develop graded visual diagnostic skills in histopathology and correlative needle aspiration cytopathology (3); Prerequisite: BHS 610

BHS 730 G 
Advanced Good Laboratory Practices and Laboratory Management (formerly BHS 630 G) . This course educates students in the topics essential for clinical laboratory entry-level knowledge of management and operations in the current healthcare environment. Students will learn and apply principles of management and leadership, along with conflict management. Additionally, students will develop skills in calculations for laboratory associated finance cost/benefit analysis, budgeting, revenue generation, billing and reimbursements. Students will review topics associated with state and federal regulations including the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA), human resource guidelines and regulations, employee performance evaluations and appraisals, education and training of the adult learner. Laboratory operation discussions will focus on good laboratory practice (GLP), quality assurance, performance improvement and total quality management topics, pre analytical, analytical and post analytical processing, laboratory information systems and electronic medical records. Students will review career planning strategies, professional development, resume and interviewing skills. (3)

BHS 740 G 
Genetics and Molecular Basis of Disease (formerly BHS 650 G). This course lays the foundation of basic genetic concepts with the objective of understanding the hereditability and/or molecular basis of disease.Common genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s Disease are studied to illustrate the mechanism that mutations causes disorders. Next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics will be introduced the advanced and future technologies in human genetics. The course will also emphasize topics such as prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling, cytogentics, cancer and genetics,application of biomarkers, and pharmacogenomics. Lecture and Lab (4); Prerequisite: CHE 311/312 or equivalent

BHS 745 G 
Molecular Diagnostics (formerly BHS 660 G). Molecular diagnostics uses DNA, RNA, and protein tests to identify a disease, determine its course, evaluate response to therapy, and understand the predisposition for a disease. The purpose of this course is for students to learn basic skills, fundamental theory and advanced technology in the field of molecular diagnostics. After studying assay methods including nucleic acids extraction, PCR and real time PCR, hybridization, arrays and next generation sequencing, students will learn how to apply them to the diagnosis of infectious disease, cancer and genetic disorders. The purpose of the course also includes training and support for students who are interested in becoming clinical molecular biologists. (3) Prerequisite: CHE 311/312 or equivalent

BHS 750 G 
Flow Cytometry (formerly BHS 670 G). This course introduces the principles and applications of flow cytometry through lectures and laboratory/group work. Major topics include: machine set-up and operation, fluorochromes and fluorescence, spectral overlap and compensation, experimental design, data collection and multi-parameter analyses, immunophenotyping, research application, clinical applications and disease diagnosis. (3); Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of instructor

BHS 755 G 
In situ Hybridization (formerly BHS 675 G). This course is an introduction to the theory and application of molecular hybridization and in situ hybridization techniques. Selection of probes, their application and appropriate detection systems for both RNA and DNA in situ hybridization techniques will be discussed in lecture and laboratory. A focus of the course will be the applications of hybridization techniques to the diagnosis and prognosis of human disease. (2); Prerequisite: BHS 740 or PSC 312

BHS 760 G 
Advanced Topics in Biotechnology - Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Portfolio (formerly BHS 690 G).This course is an independent project required by students in the MS in Cytotechnology and Molecular Cytology Program. The students, under clinical preceptor and faculty advisement, compile FNA specimens from clinical rotations and create a presentation of case studies.Each case study includes patient history, cytologic and histologic findings, photographic images of the cases, ancillary testing results, and information on the entity involved. This project allows students to participate in various laboratory activities and strengthens their training. Only cytotechnology students, who have successfully completed training on campus and are in the clinical rotation phase of the program, are eligible. (3); Corequisite: CYT 770.

BHS 765 G 
Grand Rounds in Pathology (formerly BHS 830 G). Case presentations and discussion in cytopathology, surgical pathology,forensics and radiation oncology in the medical grand rounds format. This one credit course will have a series of sessions with pathologists, specialty physicians and other laboratory professionals from hospitals in the Capitol District. The presentations will illustrate an interesting case, patient symptomatology, as well as the entire process of diagnostics, patient management and clinical outcomes; thus integrating diagnostic testing and its critical role in optimal patient care. (1)

BHS 790 G 
Capstone (formerly BHS 600 G). The capstone project is open to Clinical Laboratory Science and Cytotechnology Master Degree students only. The scope of this project will vary based on the clinical site,investigators, research mentors and research projects available and could be an exhaustive case study presentation, a hypothesis driven independent research project, or a major literature review on an existing scientific topic that is relevant to the student’s field of study. The common elements for each project is the production of a peer-reviewed, journal article quality, written document. Upon completion of the course, the student will demonstrate the ability to synthesize and analyze a complex scientific topic using critical thinking skills, evaluating possible outcomes and clearly presenting sound scientific conclusions. Students may be required to orally present their final project for committee review. (3); Corequisite: CLS 760 or CYT 780

Biology

BIO 101 
General Biology I. This course emphasizes critical thinking and scientific analysis while dealing with the molecular and cellular aspects of life. Major topics covered include biological molecules, cellular structure, cellular metabolism, Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, classification of organisms and the principles of evolution. Laboratory exercises concentrate on the scientific process and method while examining cell structure, tissue structure, molecular genetics and biotechnology. The themes of self-discovery and individual scientific investigation run throughout this course. This is the initial course in biological sciences for BS students. Course prerequisites requiring BIO 101 are also satisfied by BIO 111 and vice versa. (4); Lecture and Laboratory

BIO 102 
General Biology II. This course continues to emphasize critical scientific thinking while focusing on the diversity of animal life and the complex interactions that occur between organisms and their environment. Major topics covered include a phylogenetic survey of organisms and an introduction to the comparative physiology of the major vertebrate organ systems. The final area covered in the course is Ecology. Topics in this section include population ecology, community ecology, ecosystems, biomes and a discussion of the future challenges to the biosphere. Laboratory exercises continue to concentrate on scientific thinking and selfdiscovery.This is the second course in the biological sciences for BS Students. Course prerequisites requiring  BIO 102 are also satisfied by BIO 121 and vice versa. (4); Prerequisite: BIO 101 or permission of the instructor.Lecture and Laboratory

BIO 111 
General Biology I. This course focuses on the molecular and cellular aspects of life. Major topics covered include biological molecules, cellular structure, cellular metabolism, Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics and classification of organisms. Laboratory exercises concentrate on cell structure, tissue structure, molecular genetics and biotechnology. This is the initial course in biological sciences for PharmD students. Course prerequisites requiring BIO 111 are also satisfied by BIO 101 and vice versa. (4); Lecture and Laboratory

BIO 121 
General Biology II. This course focuses on the diversity of animal life and the complex interactions that occur within and between organisms with a strong emphasis on human systems. Major topics covered include a phylogenetic survey of organisms, comparative physiology of the major vertebrate organ systems, cellular mechanisms of development, embryology, population and community ecology, and future challenges to the biosphere. Laboratory exercises concentrate on comparative anatomy and physiology with a strong emphasis on human biology. This is the second course in the biological sciences for PharmD students.Course prerequisites requiring BIO 121 are also satisfied by BIO 102 and vice versa. (4); Prerequisite: BIO 111 or permission of the instructor; Lecture and Laboratory

BIO 210 
Microbiology (formerly BIO 312). The goal of this course is to cover the fundamentals of microbiology and infectious diseases. The first half of the course focuses on the general characteristics of prokaryotes, eukaryotes & viruses and explores the basic concepts in microbial physiology and genetics. The mechanisms by which antimicrobials control the growth of microorganisms are also discussed. The second half of the course examines the causative agents and pathogenesis of infectious diseases caused by medically important bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are also discussed via clinical case studies to foster active learning by the students. The laboratory component provides hands-on experience to students with sterile technique, staining, various biochemical tests and molecular techniques. (4);Prerequisites: BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121; Lecture and Laboratory

BIO 213 
Anatomy and Physiology I. This lecture course is the first course in a sequence which studies human anatomy and physiology.  The goal of this course is to provide an introduction to the function, regulation and integration of organs and organ systems involved in the human body. This course will begin with an introduction, and review of the basic chemistry, cell and tissue concepts covered in General Biology. Topics covered in this course will include the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems, and special senses. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121

BIO 214 
Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory. This laboratory course complements the Anatomy and Physiology I lecture course (BIO213). The focus of this course is on human anatomy at a level that is appropriate for those students interested in healthcare careers. The sequence of organ systems studied are integumentary system, nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system and endocrine system. Laboratory exercises teach students concepts in anatomy and physiology using anatomical models, histology specimens, and electrophysiology workstations. Clinical correlations are made through the extensive use of medical case studies. (1); Corequisite: BIO 213

BIO 215 
Anatomy and Physiology II. This lecture course is the second in a sequence of two courses that studies the function, regulation and integration of organs and organ systems involved in human anatomy and physiology. This course will focus on the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, and digestive systems. Also covered will be aspects of metabolism, fluid-electrolyte-acid-base balance and temperature regulation. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 213 or permission of the instructor.

BIO 216 
Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory. This laboratory course complements the Anatomy and Physiology II lecture course (BIO215). The focus of this course is on human anatomy at a level that is appropriate for those students interested in healthcare careers. The sequence of organ systems studied are male and female reproductive systems, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, urinary system and digestive system. Laboratory exercises teach students concepts in anatomy and physiology using anatomical models, histology specimens, and electrophysiology workstations. Clinical correlations are made through the extensive use of medical case studies. (1); Corequisite: BIO 215

BIO 225 
Genetics. This lecture-based course will cover the basic principles of genetics, primarily as they relate mammalian and human biology. Major topics to be covered include genomic structure, organization, and function, processes of genetic recombination, DNA mutation and repair, mechanisms of gene regulation, concepts of Mendelian inheritance, selection, genetic mapping, genetic engineering, population genetics, developmental genetics, and model organisms. The role of genetics in human health and disease will also be discussed, with an emphasis on mechanisms, diagnosis, and current treatments for genetic diseases. (3);Prerequisites: BIO 101 or BIO 101/111, BIO 102 /121, or permission of the instructor.

BIO 235 
Cell Biology. The ultimate goal of this course is that students achieve a solid understanding of cell biology. By the end of the course students will: have an understanding of the fundamental chemistry and physics of cells and thus of life; gain appreciation for protein structure and function in the context of key cellular reactions; obtain in-depth knowledge of DNA structure, function, replication, and repair; identify the means by which gene expression and gene-products can be fine tuned; achieve an evolutionary perspective on cells and life in general; become aware of cutting edge molecular techniques; be able to describe membrane structure and transport across cell membranes; become cognizant of how their cells obtain energy from food;realize the importance of the cytoskeleton, intracellular compartments, and protein transport; speak the language of cells by understanding how cells communicate; admire the contribution of genetics, cell division, and sexual reproduction to the diversity of life; and realize the profound impact stem cells and cancer have on human health. (3); Prerequisites: BIO101/111, BIO 102/121

BIO 236 
Cell Biology Laboratory. In this laboratory course, designed to complement the Cell Biology lecture, students will investigate cell types, discover nucleic acids, synthesize macromolecules, energize cells, manipulate cellular transport, understand reproduction and chromosomes, comprehend genetic inheritance, utilize cell biology for forensics, and learn occupation-applicable cell culture and molecular staining techniques. Students will work in groups, applying knowledge gained in lecture, to solve problem sets related to the laboratory topics. (1); Corequisite: BIO 235

BIO 240 
Virology. This lecture-based course provides an introduction to the field of virology. Topics presented will include virus structure, viral genetics, steps in viral replication, diseases and pathogensis, and natural history of a variety of medically important viruses. The discovery and activity of contemporary anti-viral drugs and therapeutics will also be discussed. Case studies, group discussions, and analyses of current scientific literature will be used to foster an in-depth understanding of virology and its relationship to human health. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 210

BIO 245 
Biological Basis of Disease. This course will be translational in nature by teaching students essential concepts in human anatomy, physiology and pathology in the context of significant human diseases in the United States and globally. Topics will include coverage of human disease as it affects the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive, immune, neural and endocrine systems. There will be a major emphasis on the cellular, molecular, genetic, and biochemical basis for disease in these organ systems, as well as in heritable diseases and cancer. Introductory lectures will be followed by discussion of the primary literature that complements the lecture material. Designed to give students an appreciation of diseases affecting the major organ systems, and how these illnesses have been analyzed using the tools of genetics, biochemistry, and cell and molecular biology. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 102 or BIO 121

BIO 270 
Public Health Toxicology. This course will provide the student an understanding of how toxic agents in the workplace, home and environment are identified, evaluated for their potential threat to various populations and the measures that public health officials may employ to protect sensitive populations. In addition, this course will examine the distribution of toxic agents through ecosystems and introduce the student to the assessment tools that the toxicologist uses to predict injury to humans and wildlife. Concepts in this course will usually be introduced through the use of case studies examining landmark cases that have influenced public policy such as Love canal, Bhopal India, and Minamoto Japan. (3); Prerequisites: BIO102 or BIO121, CHE102 or CHE121

BIO 290 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. BIO 290 is generally reserved for introductory level experiences and/or smaller scale projects. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

BIO 315 
Public Health Microbiology. The goal of the course is to provide an in depth understanding of emergence, transmission, pathogenicity, and control of infectious diseases relevant to public health. The course will primarily focus on emerging infectious diseases, zoonotic and vector borne diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, and food and water borne diseases. Additional topics of discussion will include bioterrorism and antibiotic resistance issues as they relate to public health. Emphasis will be placed on understanding and applying the critical concepts of epidemiology and microbiology to a particular public health problem by using clinical case studies. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 210

BIO 340 
Microbial Genetics. This course will cover fundamental concepts of microbial genetics and will provide an understanding in the structure, maintenance, expression and exchange of genetic materials in microbial cells. In particular, the mechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, translation, and methods for regulation of gene expression will be discussed. The course will also emphasize topics like transduction, transformation,conjugation, transposition and DNA mutation and repair. Application of these concepts to investigate research problems in Bioinformatics and Proteomics is also presented. (3); Prerequisites:BIO 210

BIO 350 
Biomedical Laboratory Techniques I. In the first course of this series, emphasis will be placed on imparting hands-on training in immunology and biochemistry laboratory techniques and application of these techniques to investigate research problems. Students will be trained in good laboratory practices, lab safety, proper handling of equipment, use of standard protocols, incorporation of appropriate controls, data collection, analysis and interpretation of experimental results. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 210; CHE 201/211

BIO 355 
Biomedical Laboratory Techniques II. In the second course of this series, emphasis will be placed on imparting hands-on training in laboratory techniques routinely used in molecular biology and microbial genetics and application of these techniques to develop and investigate research problems. Students will be trained in good laboratory practices, lab safety, proper handling of equipment, use of standard protocols,incorporation of appropriate controls, data collection, analysis and interpretation of experimental results. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 210; CHE 201

BIO 360 
Industrial Microbiology and Bioprocessing. This course will introduce students to the cultivation and utilization of microbial cells in commercial bioprocess engineering. Topics for discussion will include: microbial physiology and biosynthetic pathways; biotechnology; fermentation systems and downstream processing;biomanufacturing of fuels, biocatalysts, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food products including beer, wine, cheese, and yogurt; biomass, bioremediation and biomining; cGMP regulations and compliance procedures;methods of sterilization and disinfection; and safety procedures. (3);Prerequisite: BIO 210

BIO 365 
Medical Mycology and Parasitology. This first half of this course involves a comparative study of the morphology, physiology, ecology, and pathogenicity of medically important fungi. Discussions will include infectious diseases caused by fungi including their etiology, epidemiology, histopathology, diagnosis, and treatment. The second half of the course will introduce students to protozoan and helminth parasites of medical and veterinary importance; life cycles, morphology, physiology, taxonomic classification, host-parasite relationships, economic and public health aspects and current topics in parasitic diseases. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 210

BIO 370 
Microbial Physiology. This lecture based course provides an in-depth analysis of the general concepts of prokaryotic cell biology with a particular emphasis on eubacteria. Topics presented will include key functions of all prokaryotic cells including DNA replication, transcription, translation, protein secretion, energy production, stress responses, motility, and signaling. Key structural components of prokaryotic cells will also be described including membranes, the cell wall, and glycocalyx. Latter portions of the semester will cover the physiology of specific pathogens during the course of infection. This course is focused on lecture-based, graphical presentation but also includes components of self-directed learning and critical thinking including group discussions and student research papers. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 210; CHE 201/211

BIO 410 
Pharmaceutical Microbiology. This course will introduce the principles of microbiology as applied to manufacturing aspects of pharmaceutical industry. It will cover a wide range of topics including the nature of micro-organisms, contamination sources and control, sterilization and disinfection, and sterility testing methodologies. Antimicrobial agents, their modes of action and mechanisms of drug resistance will be discussed in detail. The students will also acquire knowledge of various microbiological assays and evaluation methods of antimicrobials. Drug designing and regulatory requirements for conducting clinical trials will be discussed. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Quality Control (QC), and Quality assurance (QA) in the manufacturing processes of pharmaceuticals based on current regulatory requirements will also be discussed (3);Prerequisite: BIO 210

BIO 455 
Toxicology. This course will provide students with a background in general toxicology and will focus specifically on the toxicology of drugs. The course introduction will include basic mechanisms of toxicity cellular pathology, and chemical carcinogenesis. The primary focus of the course will be on drug-induced renal,hepatic, respiratory, neurological, cardiovascular, developmental, and reproductive toxicology. Carcinogenic activity of drugs will also be presented. Examples of specific drug toxicity using case studies will be utilized in the course. Regulatory toxicology will also be addressed, as will typical approaches to preclinical and clinical toxicity risk assessment. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 215 or PSC 321, CHE 202/221

BIO 480 
Microbiology Capstone Experience I. Microbiology Capstone Experience is an opportunity for students to integrate information from earlier courses and apply the concepts and skills acquired to a microbiology related research problem or an extramural internship experience. The course will assist students in their learning by bridging their classroom knowledge with real world microbiological issues faced by the researchers and health care professionals in academia and/or industry. Microbiology Capstone Experience is a combination of two senior-level microbiology courses for a total of six credit hours. Students will be required to complete a hypothesis driven independent research project culminating in an oral/written presentation. An approved internship experience in any microbiology or public health laboratory, pharmaceutical industry, or government agency employing microbiologists may be substituted for one semester of Capstone experience. (3);Prerequisite: Senior Standing in Microbiology Program or permission of the instructor

BIO 485 
Microbiology Capstone Experience II. Continuation of BIO 480. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 480

BIO 490 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. BIO 490 is generally reserved for more advanced research projects of students with prior research experience. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. Faculty members may expect students to present their research in venues either internal or external to the college. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

BIO 491 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain PharmD professional elective credit for a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. BIO 491 is generally reserved for more advanced research projects of students with prior research experience. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. Faculty members may expect students to present their research in venues either internal or external to the college. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

BIO 620 G 
Advanced Topics in Microbiology. This course will explore various cutting-edge topics in Microbiology through Journal club style presentations of primary literature from high impact peer reviewed journals. Each session will begin with a brief overview of the background information by the instructor followed by critical evaluation of the paper through student presentations and group discussions. The course will be divided in four broad themes. The first theme covers general microbial concepts including bacterial physiology and structure, metabolism and genetics. The second theme will explore the microbial virulence mechanisms, anti-microbials, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, along with discussing novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for important bacterial infectious diseases. The third theme of the course will include the nature and biological activities of viruses, virus-host interactions and some important viral diseases. The last theme will focus on the important advances made in the field of host-pathogen interactions including innate and adaptive immune responses against selected pathogens. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

BIO 625 G 
Advanced Molecular Biology. This lecture-based course provides an in-depth analysis of the general concepts of molecular biology in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that occur in nature as well as those applied to the laboratory. The course consists of 3 parts. The first part of the course will focus on aspects of molecular biology that occur in nature. Topics presented will include detailed mechanisms of DNA organization, DNA replication, transcription, gene regulation, genetic recombination, translation, protein folding and degradation,and biochemistry of lipids and membrane formation. The second part of the course will focus on concepts of molecular biology that have been exploited for use in laboratory research. Topics will include cell growth and tissue culture, analysis and manipulation of DNA (DNA isolation, hybridization, PCR, sequencing, creation of knockouts/mutants, RNAi, qPCR, & RNA seq), the functions and importance of antibodies in research, recombinant protein expression and purification, and protein analysis/detection methods. The third part of the course will focus on scientific communication. In this part of the course students will give a journal-club style oral presentation on a topic in molecular biology. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 311/312 or CHE 312/313 or equivalent

BIO 630 G 
Advanced Cell Biology. This lecture-based course provides an in-depth analysis of the general concepts of cell biology with a particular focus on eukaryotic cells within the animal kingdom. Topics presented will include key events in the cytosol and cytoplasmic organelles (including protein production, protein modifications, vesicle trafficking and energy production), structural components of cells (including membranes, the cytoskeleton, and extracellular matrix), cell signaling, programmed cell death modules, and functions of specialized cell types (including coverage of the immune system). This course is focused on lecture-based, graphical presentation but also includes components of self-directed learning and critical thinking including group discussions and student presentations. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 101/111 and BIO 102/121. BIO 235 or equivalent is strongly recommended.

BIO 640 G 
Toxicology. This course will provide students with a background in general toxicology and will focus specifically on the toxicology of drugs. The course introduction will include basic mechanisms of toxicity,cellular pathology, and chemical carcinogenesis. The primary focus of the course will be on drug-induced renal, hepatic, respiratory, neurological, cardiovascular, developmental, and reproductive toxicology. Carcinogenic activity of drugs will also be presented. Examples of specific drug toxicity using case studies will be utilized in the course. Regulatory toxicology will also be addressed, as will typical approaches to preclinical and clinical toxicity risk assessment. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 215 or PSC 321, CHE 202/221 or equivalent courses

BIO 650 G 
Research Design. This graduate-level course will introduce students to the research methods used in the biological sciences. Topics to be covered include research design, data collection and documentation,critical literature review, preparation of a NIH-style grant application, and academic presentations and publications. Class discussions, workshops, and writing assignments will provide students with opportunities to both practice learned research methods as well as apply these methods toward the design of a potential thesis research project. (2)

BIO 660 G 
Journal Club. This course is designed to enhance the ability of graduate students to critically evaluate scientific articles published in juried scientific journals. Articles will be selected from current scientific literature in a variety of disciplines in the molecular biosciences, including cell biology, molecular biology, medicinal chemistry biochemistry, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases. All participants will read and critique the articles. Each student will present at least two articles per semester. (1)

BIO 670 G 
Research Rotation. Students will complete two laboratory rotations of seven weeks each in order to facilitate the selection of a thesis research advisor. Students will select a potential mentor based on interests and availability of openings in any given lab. Assignments, based on student preferences, will be made by the program director. Students are expected to spend a minimum of 10 hours per week on laboratory research during the rotation. They are to meet with the faculty advisor at least one hour per week for basic introduction to laboratory principles and practices, and to discuss their research. Students are required to complete reading assignments as directed by the faculty advisor and write a report of the research data and present a ten minute talk summarizing their research at the end of the rotation. (2)

BIO 680 G 
Bacterial Pathogenesis. This course is designed to provide students with fundamental and cutting edge information on the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Topics presented will include virulence factors, virulence regulation and evasion strategies utilized by bacteria to survive host defense mechanisms. Special emphasis will be placed on understanding the genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches that can be used to study these host-pathogen interactions. Intervention strategies, including vaccination and anti-microbial therapy along with bacterial resistance mechanisms will also be discussed. Data analysis from primary literature will form a major component of the course. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 210, BIO 236, PSC 315, PSC 311 or CHE 311, PSC 312 or equivalent courses

BIO 701 G.

Thesis. The student will identify an appropriate area of research and a thesis advisor. The student will develop a research proposal. The specific topic and nature of the research will be determined by the student and thesis advisor. On receiving approval from the program director, a thesis committee will be established to act in an advisory capacity for the thesis proposal defense. On successful defense of the proposal the student will commence the research. Studies involving humans must be approved the College’s IRB. Studies involving animals must be approved by IAUCC. Project involving data collection and management must adhere to GLP requirements. Once the work has been completed, the student will write and defend the thesis. (1-6)

Chemistry

CHE 101/111 
General Chemistry I. This course provides a solid introduction to the science of chemistry with an emphasis on those concepts necessary to understand the chemistry of biological systems. Topics covered include methods of measurement, thermodynamics, atomic and molecular structure, nomenclature, periodic properties of the elements, chemical bonding, molecular geometry, intermolecular forces, chemical reactions and solutions. In the lab component of this course students perform experiments that illustrate lecture topics, develop laboratory technique, and encourage problem solving skills. PharmD students register for CHE 111, BS students register for CHE 101. Course prerequisites requiring CHE 111 are also satisfied by CHE 101 and vice versa. (4); Lecture and Laboratory

CHE 102/121 
General Chemistry II. This course continues to provide a solid introduction to the science of chemistry by applying many of the topics covered in General Chemistry I to new areas. Special emphasis is again placed on those concepts necessary to understand the chemistry of biological systems. Topics covered include properties of solutions, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and acid-base equilibrium. In the lab component of this course students perform experiments that illustrate lecture topics, develop laboratory technique, and encourage problem solving skills. PharmD students register for CHE 121, BS students register for CHE 102. Course prerequisites requiring CHE 121 are also satisfied by CHE 102 and vice versa (4);Prerequisite: CHE 101/111; Lecture and Laboratory

CHE 201/211
Organic Chemistry I. This course provides a foundation for the study of organic reactions by examining the physical and chemical properties of organic molecules. Areas covered include acid-base chemistry, functional groups, resonance, isomerism,conformations, stereochemistry, charge-distribution and its impact on reaction mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics,nomenclature, and spectroscopy. The laboratory provides a hands-on experience with methods and instrumentation used in the synthesis, purification and characterization of organic compounds including distillation,crystallization,extraction, chromatography, spectroscopy, kinetics, and polarimetry. The lab also has components in professional writing and ethics. PharmD students register for CHE 211, BS students register for CHE 201. Course prerequisites requiring CHE 211 are also satisfied by CHE 201 and vice versa. (4); Prerequisite: CHE 102/121; Lecture and Laboratory CHE 202/221 Organic Chemistry II. This course focuses on the synthesis and reactivity of the major classes of organic compounds with emphasis on mechanistic rationalization and stereochemistry. The application of organic chemistry to the understanding of drug stability, drug reactivity and drug interactions is highlighted.The lab component of this course focuses on the hands-on application and development of experimental techniques designed to develop laboratory skills and promote understanding of the synthesis, identification and purification of organic compounds. PharmD students register for CHE 221, BS students register for CHE 202. Course prerequisites requiring CHE 221 are also satisfied by CHE 202 and vice versa. (4); Prerequisites: CHE 201/211;Lecture and Laboratory

CHE 245 
Survey of Organic Chemistry. This course is a one semester overview of the basics of organic chemistry. Physical and chemical properties of organic molecules, nomenclature, acid-base chemistry,chemical reactions of various classes of organic compounds, and stereochemistry are some of the topics to be covered. Designed to provide students in health science programs the background and understanding of organic chemistry principles, it facilitates future coursework in biochemical and biomedical studies. An associated lab component complements the topics covered in lecture and works to develop laboratory skills.(4); Prerequisite: CHE 102/121; Lecture and Laboratory

CHE 253 
Scientific Communication. The course is designed to familiarize students with various types of scientific communications and to help students develop three core skills: 1) to critically read and analyze scientific documents, 2) to learn and practice writing in proper scientific language and formats and 3) to disseminate scientific information to scientific and lay communities. The characteristics of clear, concise and organized analysis and writing in each type of scientific format will be examined through review and evaluation of scientific literature, presentations and sample grant proposals. Students will develop their skills through in class exercises, homework assignments and preparation of abstracts, proposals and articles. (3); Prerequisite: Junior standing

CHE 290 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. CHE 290 is generally reserved for introductory level experiences and/or smaller scale projects. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

CHE 311 
Biochemistry I. This course introduces students to the basic concepts of biochemistry, reviews the key biomolecules (amino acids, proteins and enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, coenzymes, vitamins, and other physiologically and pharmacologically active small molecules), and discusses the key metabolic pathways. The relationship between biological function and chemical structure and reactivity are explored using the fundamental chemical and physical principles. (3);Prerequisite: CHE 202/211

CHE 312 
Biochemistry Lab I. This course introduces students to basic methods and techniques commonly used for biochemical manipulations and analyses. (1); Corequisite: CHE 311

CHE 345 
Physical Chemistry I. This course covers fundamental concepts of physical chemistry including thermodynamics(with applications to chemical and phase equilibria and electrochemistry), and reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Emphasis is on solving qualitative and quantitative problems using a variety of mathematical methods. The concepts are presented in the context of their importance for understanding of biological systems. Examples include qualitative and quantitative applications of these topics of physical chemistry to specific biological and biomedical problems. (3); Prerequisites: PHY 202/222, MAT 235,CHE102/121; Corequisite: CHE 346

CHE 355
Organic Synthesis. This laboratory-based course explores advanced topics in organic synthesis with emphasis on carbon-carbon bond formation, retrosynthetic analysis of complex molecular structures, and chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity in organic chemical reactions. Students will apply course concepts in the laboratory by conducting multi-step synthetic sequences that include advanced techniques such as inert atmosphere conditions, analytical and preparative chromatography for purification and analysis and spectroscopic characterization of synthesized products. (3); Prerequisite: CHE 221

CHE 390 
Independent Study. This course provides an opportunity for students to participate in a specialized study project under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. Students are expected to perform three hours of project related work per credit hour earned. (1-3)Prerequisite: permission of the instructor CHE 415 Medicinal Chemistry I. This course explores the fundamental principles that define the relationship between the chemical structure and biological action of drug molecules. A major focus of the course is the application of these chemical principles to pharmacokinetics, with special emphasis on drug metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of drug activity, drug resistance and drug synergism. (3); Prerequisites: CHE 311 or PSC 311

CHE 417 
Medicinal Chemistry II. This course continues to explore the fundamental principles that define the relationship between the chemical structure and biological action of drug molecules. A major focus of the course is to study case histories of marketed and experimental drugs. An overview of the disease and the drug discovery approaches employed in drug discovery will be discussed. There will be special emphasis on drug design, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and synthesis. (3); Prerequisites: CHE 415 or PTP 401 or PSC 431

CHE 450 
Analytical Chemistry - Foundations (1)
This course presents the theoretical basis upon which analytical problems are solved. The analytical process is covered in depth including discussions of: problem identification, selection of an analytical method, sampling, sample preparation,method validations, data collection and interpretation, and reporting.

CHE 452
Analytical Chemistry - Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (2)
This course presents the use of atomic and molecular spectroscopy to solve chemical and biologically based analytical problems. The underlying scientific principles upon which spectroscopic techniques are based will be used to show how it can be used as an analytical tool.Practical considerations regarding its capabilities and limitations will also be presented. Lab experiments will be performed that illustrate its use in a laboratory environment.

CHE 454 
Analytical Chemistry - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1) This course presents the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solve chemical and biologically based analytical problems. The underlying scientific principles upon which NMR techniques are based will be used to show why it can be used as an analytical tool. Practical considerations regarding its capabilities and limitations will also be presented. Lab experiments will be performed that illustrate its use in a laboratory environment.

CHE 456
Analytical Chemistry - Gas and Liquid Chromatography (2)
This course presents the use of gas and liquid chromatography to solve chemical and biologically based analytical problems.The underlying scientific principles upon which these techniques are based will be used to show why it can be used as an analytical tool. Practical considerations regarding its capabilities and limitations will also be presented. Lab experiments will be performed that illustrate its use in a laboratory environment.

CHE 458 
Analytical Chemistry - Mass Spectroscopy (1) This course covers the use of MS and hyphenated MS techniques.

CHE 460 
Analytical Chemistry - Miscellaneous Methods (1) This course presents the use of titrimetric, thermal, and enzymatic methods

CHE 490 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. CHE 490 is generally reserved for more advanced research projects of students with prior research experience. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. Faculty members may expect students to present their research in venues either internal or external to the college. Students completing CHE 490 to satisfy the research requirement of the chemistry program will be expected to do so. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

CHE 623 G
Methods in Spectroscopy. This course covers the theoretical basis of IR, NMR and UV/visible spectroscopies and mass spectrometry with applications to the elucidation of the structure and function of organic molecules. Included are examples of spectroscopic analyses of stereochemistry, conformations and kinetics with emphasis on biomedical applications such as spectroscopic investigations of drug transport and metabolism. An overview of chromatographic methods and the coupling of these methods to spectroscopic analyses will also be discussed. (3); Prerequisite: CHE 202/221

CHE 640 G 
Medicinal Chemistry I. This course explores the fundamental principles that define the relationship between the chemical structure and biological action of drug molecules. A major focus of the course is the application of these chemical principles to predicting the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, with special emphasis on drug metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of drug activity, drug resistance and drug synergism. Strategies for drug development, drug and prodrug design, and pharmacologic evaluation utilizing the concepts of qualitative and quantitative structure-activity relationships,biological screening assays, combinatorial chemistry, and computer-aided modeling are discussed. (3); Prerequisite: CHE 202/221;CHE 312 or PSC 311 or equivalent courses

CHE 641 G 
Medicinal Chemistry II. This course continues to explore the fundamental principles that define the relationship between the chemical structure and biological action of drug molecules. A major focus of the course is to study case histories of marketed and experimental drugs. An overview of the disease and the drug discovery approaches employed in drug discovery will be discussed. There will be special emphasis on drug design, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and synthesis. (3);Prerequisite: CHE 415/CHE 640 or PSC 431/631 or PTP 401 or equivalent courses

CHE 650 G 
Bioanalytical Techniques. The goal of this course is to understand the underlying principles, strengths, and limitations of state-of-the-art bioanalytical methods. The course is dedicated primarily to broadly biomedically-relevant instrumental methods, such as spectroscopy, chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Also emphasized are more specialized biochemical and biological techniques, such as protein determination, enzyme binding, and cell-based assays. (3)

INTRODUCTORY & ADVANCED PHARMACY PRACTICE EXPERIENCE ROTATIONS

CLK 798 
This experientially-based, 4 credit, required course will expose students to the basic day-to-day operations of a community pharmacy. Specific assignments have been designed to provide students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills gained through classroom and laboratory instruction into an actual practice setting. Other activities involve students gaining new knowledge and skills essential to community pharmacy practice. Students will participate in and demonstrate an understanding of the “flow” of processing and dispensing a prescription medication order, evaluate medication orders for accuracy and completeness and describe the medication distribution system employed by the pharmacy. Additionally, students will participate in the promotion of health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention in cooperation with patients, communities, at-risk, targeted populations, and other members of the interprofessional team of health care providers. This course will prepare the student for their advanced pharmacy practice experiences in the fourth professional year and is a prerequisite for CLK811+. (4)

CLK 799
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience Plus (IPPE Plus) – Community Pharmacy. This experientially-based, 3 credit,professional elective course will expose students to the basic day-to-day operations of a community pharmacy and is offered on a limited basis to students who have very little or no community pharmacy work experience. The course objectives mirror the Community IPPE course objectives with emphasis on communication skills and medication knowledge. Specific assignments have been designed to provide students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills gained through classroom and laboratory instruction into an actual practice setting. (3); Prerequisites: state issued intern permit (if required),successful completion of CIPPE (CLK 798), and CPR certification.

CLK 803
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) - Team Based Care. This experientially-based, 1 credit, required course will expose students to the basic day-to-day operations of a patient care setting. Each student will have the opportunity to apply knowledge gained through didactic learning and lab by being placed in an actual practice setting. Specific assignments have been designed which require the application of classroom knowledge and skills to be further developed during these on-site training experiences. Students will gather and organize information from patient medical charts, conduct patient interviews to obtain an accurate medication history, identify medication related problems, present a patient case in a structured format(ex. SOAP note) and prepare responses to drug information inquiries. This course will prepare the student for their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in the fourth professional year. (1); Prerequisite: New York State intern permit or equivalent for the State in which rotation will be completed.

CLK 807 
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) - Institutional. This experientially-based, 3 credits, required course will expose students to the basic day-to-day operations of an institutional pharmacy. Each student will have the opportunity to apply knowledge gained through didactic learning and lab by placement in an actual practice setting. Specific assignments have been designed which require the application of classroom knowledge and skills to be further developed during these on-site training experiences. Students will demonstrate an understanding of the proper procedure for preparation of intravenous products using aseptic technique, describe the “flow” of processing an order, evaluate institutional orders for accuracy and completeness and describe the medication distribution system employed by the pharmacy. This course will prepare the student for their Institutional Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in the fourth professional year. (3); Prerequisite: New York State intern permit or equivalent for the State in which rotation will be completed.

CLK 811+ 
Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). APPEs are “hands-on” experiences designed to build on the academic base obtained in the didactic portions and the IPPEs in the PharmD program. The purpose of the APPEs is to provide the student with a broad exposure to various pharmacy practice environments in order for the student to develop skills in making independent judgments and integrating fundamental knowledge into clinical applications. APPEs span a 12-month period (May-May) and are subdivided into modules; each student is required to complete seven APPE modules (42 academic credits). APPEs are scheduled by the College and typically require the student to be at the practice site at least eight hours daily Each student must complete required and elective modules as follows: Required APPEs: community pharmacy (6 weeks); ambulatory care(6 weeks); institutional pharmacy (6 weeks) and inpatient (6 weeks flexible core (ambulatory care, inpatient or community,student’s choice). Inpatient and ambulatory care rotations are direct patient care rotations in settings including but not limited to anticoagulation; diabetes care/endocrinology; family practice; home care; internal medicine; nephrology;nutrition; primary care; AIDS; cardiology; critical care; geriatrics; hematology/oncology; infectious diseases; pediatrics and psychiatry. Two elective APPEs, of 6 weeks each, are required and may include direct patient care APPEs (community,ambulatory care or inpatient setting) or non-patient care APPEs such as: managed care; antimicrobial management; clinical toxicology; consultant pharmacy; drug programs management; governmental affairs/ regulatory; health information management;home infusion pharmacotherapy; long-term care; nuclear pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacy administration; pharmacy association management; pharmacy database management; pharmacy education and research.Prerequisites:  Must have successfully completed all required didactic coursework and all IPPEs. Also, successful completion of Top 280 exam and CPR certification.

CLK 812+ 
Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. This required, 6- week advanced practice experience provides students with practical experience in the setting of ambulatory care. The sites available are varied and include, but are not limited to, clinics/offices in the field of diabetes; adult /pediatric medicine; oncology; home health care; neurology; nephrology;nutrition; anticoagulation and pain management. This experience introduces the student to the practical application of pharmaceutical care, enhances student abilities to identify and resolve medication related problems, refines medication information skills and provides an opportunity for the student to participate in multidisciplinary patient care in an ambulatory care setting. This experience will be offered in the P4 year. The student must have completed all required courses up to the P4 year. (6)

CLK 930/931 
Institutional and Inpatient Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. This required, 6-week each, Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences provide students with practical experience in the institutional care setting. They include all aspects of institutional practice and acute care medicine including medication distribution, patient assessment and monitoring,pharmacotherapy assessment, medication control and procurement, medication use systems, drug information services and administrative functions. (6 each)

CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES 

CLS 307 
Urinalysis and Body Fluids. This course covers the physiology and pathophysiology of renal function and the renal function tests including chemical and microscopic examination of urine. The theory and performance of body fluids analysis will include fecal specimens, spinal fluid and other body fluids. Clinical correlation of other laboratory results with body fluid results and patient diagnosis is emphasized. (1); Prerequisite: BIO 215 

CLS 308 
Urinalysis and Body Fluids Lab. This laboratory experience includes performance of analysis of urine, body fluids, fecal specimens, and semen. Laboratory safety, quality control, and troubleshooting will be emphasized. (1); Corequisite: CLS 307

CLS 317 
Hematology. This course will address the evaluation of blood cells and body fluids in the clinical hematology laboratory. The lecture and laboratory will highlight physiology, pathophysiology and laboratory testing of blood and bone marrow cells,evaluation of hemostasis and hemostatic disorders and the laboratory evaluation of formed elements found in other body fluids. (3); Prerequisite:  BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121

CLS 318 
Hematology Laboratory. Students will perform a variety of manual and automated techniques used in both hematology and hemostasis and correlate results with hematologic disease states ranging from anemia to leukemia and including thrombotic and bleeding disorders. Emphasis is placed on problem solving experience with respect to both theoretical and practical applications. (1); Corequisite: CLS 317

CLS 327 
Clinical Microbiology I. Lectures will focus on the characterization, identification and pathogenesis (if any) of commonly encountered human microbiota. This course will be organized into 5 units: 1.) virology, 2.) antimicrobial susceptibility testing and infection control, 3.) aerobic/facultative gram-positive bacteria, 4.) aerobic/facultative gram-negative bacteria, 4.) miscellaneous bacteria. This course will educate and prepare students for career as a health care practitioner utilizing the most updated clinical microbiology theory and applications. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121

CLS 328 
Clinical Microbiology I Laboratory. Students will perform laboratory analysis of a variety of specimens, analyze and record laboratory data, identify aerobic bacteria and sources of infection and, comply with all safety procedures, (1); Corequisite:CLS 327

CLS 329 
Clinical Microbiology II. This course is a continuation of Clinical Microbiology I and will focus on mycology, parasitology and body system associated clinical specimens and infections. Lectures will focus on the characterization, identification and pathogenesis (if any) of commonly encountered human microbiota. The course will be organized into four units: 1.) anaerobic and mycobacteria bacteriology, 2.) medical parasitology, 3.) medical mycology and 4.) body system associated infections. This course will educate and prepare students for a career as a health care practitioner utilizing the most updated clinical microbiology theory and applications.(3); Prerequisite: CLS 327

CLS 330 
Clinical Microbiology II Laboratory. Students will perform laboratory analysis of a variety of specimens, analyze and record laboratory data, identify anaerobic bacteria, parasites, fungus and yeasts. Students will learn and comply with all safety procedures. (1); Corequisite: CLS 329

CLS 337 
Clinical Immunology. This course covers basic immunologic theory and concepts in relation to the principles and performance of procedures used in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and immunologic disease. Specific topics include antigen-antibody reactions, complement and complement fixation, immunoassays, immunofluorescence, microbial serology and autoimmune diseases. Emphasis is placed on problem solving experience with respect to both theoretical and practical applications. (3)Prerequisite: BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121

CLS 338 
Clinical Immunology Laboratory. Students will perform many of the immunologic techniques used to determine antigen and antibody specificities and contribute to diagnosis of disease states including autoimmune viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases. Emphasis is placed on problem solving experience with respect to both theoretical and practical applications. (1); Corequisite: CLS 337

CLS 339 
Immunohematology. This course will apply immunologic principles to the study of immunohematology including blood groups,transfusion therapy, investigation of transfusion reactions and related pathologic mechanisms. Donor selection, blood processing and handling as well as compliance with all regulatory bodies will be emphasized. Discussion will also include other human tissues available for therapeutic and surgical use. (3); Prerequisite: CLS 337

CLS 340 
Immunohematology Laboratory. Students will perform both manual and automated techniques to determine blood type, identify compatible donor blood, identify unexpected antibodies, determine hemolytic disease of the newborn and investigate transfusion reactions. Emphasis is placed on problem solving experience with respect to both theoretical and practical applications. (1); Corequisite: CLS 339

CLS 346 
Clinical Chemistry. This course applies biochemical principles to the study of clinical chemistry and its application to diagnosis and treatment of patients. The significance of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymatic measurements, and acid-base balance as they apply to diagnoses of cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal and metabolic diseases is emphasized. (3)Prerequisite: CHE 311 or equivalent

CLS 347 
Clinical Chemistry Laboratory. Students will perform both manual and automated techniques focused on the measurement of chemical analytes in human specimens and correlate the results with the pathophysiology of disease presentation. Emphasis is placed on problem solving experience with respect to both theoretical and practical applications. (1); Corequisite: CLS 346

CLS 348 
Clinical Biochemical Techniques This course covers the principles and operation of a variety of instruments used in clinical laboratories and medical research. The physical and chemical properties of matter that make measurement possible and the application of these principles to analyses involving spectral, electrochemical, chromatographic, colligative and nuclear instrumentation. The laboratory offers hands on experience with the principles and operation of a variety of instruments used in clinical laboratories and medical research. (1); Prerequisite: CHE 102

CLS 400 
Laboratory Management and Education. This course educates students in the topics essential for clinical laboratory entry-level knowledge of management and operations in the current healthcare environment. Students will learn and apply principles of management & leadership, along with conflict management.  Additionally, students will review to include calculations,laboratory associated finance cost/benefit analysis, budgeting, revenue generation, billing and reimbursements. Students will review topics associated with state and federal regulations including the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA),human resource guidelines & regulations, employee performance evaluations and appraisals, education and training of the adult learner. Laboratory operation discussions will focus on good laboratory practice (GLP), quality assurance, performance improvement and total quality management topics, pre analytical, analytical and post analytical processing, laboratory information systems and electronic medical records. Students will review career planning strategies, professional development, resume and interviewing skills. (3); Prerequisite: Enrollment in CLS Program
 
CLS 401 and CLS 402 
Clinical Practicum I and II. Students will participate in a number of experiential exercises in various affiliated hospital and laboratory sites. Rotations will include Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Immunohematology, Hematology and Coagulation, Immunology/Serology and Molecular Diagnostic testing. The clinical practicum experience will include specimen tracking, performance of routine analyses, demonstration of specialty testing, observation of automated instrumentation and management processes, including quality control and quality assurance activities. (9 each); Prerequisite: Completion of all CLS 300 level courses

CLS 410 
Clinical Correlations. Through case study and extensive literature review, this course is the culmination of the CLS curriculum. The results of testing in all laboratory disciplines are applied to the diagnosis of the patient, the resolution of pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic issues and the appropriate management of the clinical laboratory.(3)Corequisite: CLS 402

CLS 610 G 
Clinical Microbiology I (formerly CLS 550 G). Lectures will focus on the characterization, identification and pathogenesis(if any) of commonly encountered human microbiota. This course will be organized into 5 units: 1.) virology, 2.)antimicrobial susceptibility testing and infection control, 3.) aerobic/facultative gram-positive bacteria, 4.)aerobic/facultative gram-negative bacteria, 4.) miscellaneous bacteria. This course will educate and prepare students for career as a health care practitioner utilizing the most updated clinical microbiology theory and applications.(4)Prerequisite: BIO 101/111, BIO 102/121 or equivalent

CLS 620 G 
Clinical Microbiology II (formerly CLS 560 G). This course is a continuation of Clinical Microbiology I and will focus on mycology, parasitology and body system associated clinical specimens and infections. Lectures will focus on the characterization, identification and pathogenesis (if any) of commonly encountered human microbiota. The course will be organized into four units: 1.) anaerobic and mycobacteria bacteriology, 2.) medical parasitology, 3.) medical mycology and 4.) body system associated infections. This course will educate and prepare students for a career as a health care practitioner utilizing the most updated clinical microbiology theory and applications.(4); Prerequisite: CLS 610 G

CLS 630 G 
Clinical Immunology (formerly CLS 530 G). The content of this course includes development of the immune system,immunoglobulin structure and genetics, antigen-antibody reactions, the major histocompatibility complex and antigen presentation, and immune responses to infections organisms and tumors. The lecture and laboratory will focus on diagnostic techniques employed in the identification of viral and bacterial diseases and the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases,allergies, immune deficiencies and AIDS. (4); Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of instructor

CLS 640 G 
Clinical Chemistry (formerly CLS 540 G). This combined lecture/laboratory course focuses on basic concepts of laboratory instrumentation, troubleshooting techniques and the operation, evaluation and selection of instruments. Lectures emphasize chemical measurements of physiologic indicators of normal and abnormal human metabolism and address the elements of clinical chemistry and its application to diagnosis and treatment of patients. The significance of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins,enzymatic measurements, acid-base balance as they apply to diagnoses of cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal and metabolic diseases is emphasized through hands-on measurement and correlation with pathophysiology. (4); Prerequisite: CHE 311 or equivalent

CLS 650 G 
Clinical Hematology and Hemostasis (formerly CLS 520 G). This course will address the evaluation of blood cells and body fluids in the clinical hematology laboratory. The lecture and laboratory will highlight physiology, pathophysiology and laboratory testing of blood and bone marrow cells, evaluation of hemostasis and hemostatic disorders and the laboratory evaluation of formed elements found in other body fluids. (4); Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of instructor

CLS 655 G 
Urinalysis and Body Fluids (formerly CLS 525 G). This course includes the medical biochemistry of renal function and the interpretation of urinalysis and body fluid (spinal fluid, seminal fluid, and other body fluids) testing. Emphasis is on clinical significance and interpretation of laboratory results, specimen collection and preservation, biochemical test procedures, clinical microscopy and cytology of urine sediment. (2); Prerequisite: BIO 215 or equivalent

CLS 660 G 
Immunohematology (formerly CLS 535 G). Immunohematology is the laboratory application of immunologic principles to the identification of appropriate blood and blood products for transfusion and body tissues for transplant. The course will cover characteristics of red cell and white cell specific antigens, donor qualification and blood processing as well as the techniques for identification of auto- and allo-antibodies important to transfusion medicine and transfusion service specific regulations and quality control requirements. (4); Prerequisite or Corequisite: CLS 630

CLS 760 G 
Clinical Correlations (formerly CLS 690). Students will evaluate a series of case studies which integrate all disciplines of laboratory diagnostic medicine. The cases will require knowledge of laboratory test result normal, factors that affect the accuracy of laboratory test results, quality management principles, and the ability to integrate diverse information to arrive at a diagnosis, corrective action or quality improvement recommendation. (3); Corequisite: CLS 780.

CLS 770 G / 780 G 
Clinical Practicum I and II (formerly CLS 670 G; CLS 680 G). Students will participate in a number of experiential exercises in the affiliated hospital and laboratory sites. Rotations will include Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry,Immunohematology, Hematology and Coagulation, Immunology/Serology and Molecular Diagnostic testing. The clinical practicum experience will include specimen tracking, performance of routine analyses, demonstration of specialty testing, observation of automated instrumentation and management processes, including quality control and quality assurance activities. (9 credit per semester); Prerequisite: Completion of all required CLS 600 level course

COMPUTER SCIENCE 

CMP 115 
Introductory Excel. This course provides an introduction to health analytics using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software.Topics include worksheets and workbooks, functions, tables, templates, charts/diagrams and data analysis. Application to health related data will be included to illustrate the use of Excel as a tool in health and healthcare settings. (2)

COMMUNICATIONS

COM 101 
Academic Reading and Writing. This course introduces students to critical writing and reading in academic contexts and offers them the opportunity to develop essential skills in comprehending, analyzing and evaluating college-level texts; effectively addressing writing assignments; inventing,drafting and revising; and seeking, providing and responding to constructive feedback. Through multiple writing activities and individualized coaching, students are presented with and practice the fundamentals of academic communication such as synthesizing multiple sources, sustaining a coherent argument and revising for clarity of style. Special attention is paid to conventions of standard written English. (3)

COM 102 
Group Communication. This hybrid course (½ online and ½ face-to-face) is introductory and designed to provide basic understanding of the group dynamic and process. Critical facets of group functioning are studied and experienced to apply key concepts that are relevant to group development, team building, roles, problem-solving, and leadership. These concepts will be examined in a variety of group settings to help students understand critical events which occur in both large and small cohorts. (3)

COM 105 
Workshop in English as a Second Language. This ESL Workshop provides one to one or small group support to students for whom English is a second language and have proficiency in English, but who require some specialized study to accompany their current courses. The course provides practice and instruction in the writing process, conventions of academic genres and English grammar and usage. The course is designed as a workshop to support students with the writing they are doing in an elective or required course such as Academic Reading and Writing, Principles of Communication, or the Humanities sequence.This course may be repeated for credit up to three times. (1)

COM 115 
Principles of Communication. This course is aimed primarily toward introducing students to academic literacy practices,including reading, writing, researching and using sources, speaking, collaborating with peers and using visuals. Students will establish a solid communication skill set to serve as a foundation for the rest of their academic and professional career. In addition, students also will engage in activities to understand both the basic principles and processes of communication, as well as the tools that make communication possible. (3)

COM 120 
Introduction to Public Speaking (formerly LAS 241). This interactive, workshop-style course introduces students to the core communication skills required for effective public speaking. Students will learn to design and present messages in two primary genres: speaking to inform and speaking to persuade. Specific skills/topics to be addressed include: verbal and nonverbal delivery mechanics, managing speech anxiety, grabbing attention, organizational structures, language style,Powerpoint design and usage, audience analysis, and job interviewing skills. In addition to scripted messages, students will develop confidence with extemporaneous (improvisational) speaking. (3)

COM 150 
Introduction to Journalism (formerly LAS 144). This course is designed to introduce students to the basic concepts of journalism by exploring and evaluating issues and events occurring during the college years. Students will write at least four articles for Mortar and Pestle each semester. This course may be taken three times, giving a sense of continuity to the newspaper and enabling students to earn a total of three liberal arts credits. (1)

COM 171 
American Sign Language I. Level 1 is an introductory level course for students with little or no prior experience in Sign Language. Expressive and receptive sign skills will be addressed as well as the manual alphabet for fingerspelling, basic grammatical structures, and how to develop vocabulary through sign production. The students will also learn about various forms of sign language and deaf culture. Class time will be devoted in developing basic conversations and the skills will be practiced in whole group discussions as well as small group exercises and discussions. Signs skills will also be enhanced outside the classroom through grammar and comprehensive exercises. (3)

COM 172 
American Sign Language II. Expressive and receptive sign skills will be addressed as well as the manual alphabet for finger spelling, basic grammatical structures, and how to develop vocabulary through sign production. The students will also learn about various forms of sign language and deaf culture. Class time will be devoted in developing basic conversations and the skills will be practiced in whole group discussions as well as small group exercises and discussions. Signs skills will also be enhanced outside the classroom through grammar and comprehensive exercises. (3); Prerequisite: COM 171

COM 175 
Academic Writing and Presentations for ESL I. This course is designed for nonnative English speakers who are proficient in English but need to improve their academic writing and presentation skills. Students will gain confidence in academic writing and speaking in order to increase fluency and proficiency. The course will also enable students to develop a practical understanding of the conventions of academic writing and presentations. Students will also have opportunities to work with and get feedback on writing and presentation assignments in other courses. (3)

COM 211 
Spanish for Health Careers I. The Spanish for Health Careers I and II sequence will provide students with specific vocabulary, grammar and cultural competencies that will be directly applicable to interaction with Spanish-speaking clients within a health care context. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the building of speaking/listening communication skills. Students will primarily communicate in the present tense and will be introduced to expression in the past tense. As the Spanish for Health Careers I Course is an introductory level language course, previous knowledge of Spanish will be helpful but not necessary. (3)

COM 212 
Spanish for Health Careers II: The Spanish for Health Careers II is the second course in the sequence that provides students with specific vocabulary, grammar and cultural competencies that will be directly applicable to interaction with Spanish-speaking clients within a health care context. (3); Prerequisite: COM 211 or permission of the instructor

COM 230 
Overcoming Communication Hurdles in Health Care (formerly LAS 251). This course addresses the development of students’reading, writing, speaking and listening abilities. Through a mix of mini-lectures, workshops and active learning activities,students are presented information fundamental to understanding communication as a critical element in the delivery of health care. Through case studies, individual and group assignments, students will apply the communication strategies presented in class to situations of increasing rhetorical complexity and personal responsibility. (3); Prerequisite: COM 115

COM 242 
Interpersonal Communication (formerly LAS 242). This course introduces students to the social scientific discipline of interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication provides the building blocks from which all larger forms of social organization are created and maintained. Friendships, intimate relationships, families, football teams, juries, hiring committees, PR firms, hospitals, political campaigns, and governments all rely at some level on interpersonal communication.The course is divided into two large units. The first unit covers foundational theories in the area of interpersonal communication. The second unit covers what might be considered "problematic" aspects of interpersonal communication (e.g.conflict, deception, social predicaments). Throughout the course, concepts from interpersonal communication are applied to different health care settings, demonstrating how interpersonal dynamics affect the delivery and receipt of health care. (3)Prerequisite: COM 115

COM 251 
Communication and Conflict. This course offers a broad overview of the study of conflict from a communication perspective. It introduces students to current theoretical and applied issues in the study of conflict management using social science theories to help explain the process of interacting with others. Specifically, the course examines the nature, causes, and techniques for managing conflict across a wide variety of situations including societal clashes, psychological turmoil, group decision-making, intimate relationships, and organizational interaction. While each of these situations differs in important ways, there are commonalities in how conflict functions across them. We will look at those commonalities to understand the role of communication in conflict. The assignments and class activities focus upon the theories, models, principles, and concepts of conflict and their application to a variety of relationships. (3); Prerequisite: COM 115

COM 312 
Health Promotion. This course combines theoretical approaches to persuasion and behavior change with applied, experiential learning to provide students with the knowledge and skills to promote health initiatives in a variety of communication media.(3); Prerequisites: COM 115, COM 120

COM 315 
Health Campaigns. Communication campaigns play an important role in public health and safety. The overarching goal of this course is to examine strategies and outcomes of informative and persuasive health communication campaigns. The course will first provide an overview of the history of campaigns, audience analysis, formative research, theory, design, and evaluation,and second, examination of specific health campaigns. This course will include a hands-on group project designing and implementing a health message intervention that will give students practical experience and will allow students to develop professional communication and teamwork competencies. Principles covered in this course are fundamental to the field of Health Communication. (3); Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor

COM 320 
Patient-Provider Communication. A great deal of health care is delivered interpersonally. When health providers and health consumers interact, they coordinate their social and communicative activities in order to realize the practical goals of therapeutic partnership. This course exposes students to a range of communicative challenges that health providers and health consumers experience when they interact. Various communication strategies for overcoming these challenges will be discussed and evaluated. Applying an ecological perspective on health care, relationships between macro-level factors (culture, gender,economics) and micro-level factors (interpersonal relationships, interaction) will be discussed. (3); Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor

COM 330 
Intercultural Communication in Healthcare. Modern health care systems require practitioners to provide care to patients with diverse values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors. This course exposes students to the communication challenges that patients and providers navigate as part of an intercultural therapeutic partnership, with special emphasis on the ways in which health care delivery can be tailored to patients’ unique social, cultural, and linguistic needs. The course uses the term “culture” broadly and inclusively, highlighting traditional racial/ethnic cultures (e.g. Middle Eastern), national cultures (e.g. Mexican) and co-cultures (e.g. African American), while also including contemporary notions of cultural membership (e.g. cultures of medicine, cultures of disability, LGBTQ). Key topics include: minority health disparities,health literacy, barriers to health care access, cultural variations in communication style, the use of medical interpreters,traditional and complementary medicine, and culturally-specific media environments that influence health beliefs and behaviors. (3); Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor

COM 339 
Professional and Technical Writing. This hybrid course (½ online and ½ face-to-face) addresses the development of students’writing abilities through a mix of mini-lectures, workshops and active learning activities. Students are presented information fundamental to understanding written communication as a critical element in the delivery of health care. Through case studies, individual and group assignments, students will apply the rhetorical strategies presented in class to situations ranging from the general to discipline/profession specific. (3); Prerequisite: COM 115

COM 350 
Qualitative Research Methods. This workshop-style course provides training and applied experiences with qualitative methods used in the social sciences, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and discourse analysis.The key philosophical assumptions of qualitative research, as well as the complementarity of qualitative and quantitative methods, will be emphasized. Using a team-based approach, students will collect and analyze original data, as well as publicly available data sources. At the end of the course, teams will present their findings in an academic manuscript and in a formal presentation. (3); Prerequisites: SOC 301, 3rd year standing

COM 390 
Independent Study in Communication. This is a mentor-student proposed elective course project focused on communication. The student under faculty advisement must submit a proposal to the Department Chair for approval. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

CYTOTECHNOLOGY  

CYT 610 G 
Cytopathology of Female Genital Tract (FGT) (formerly CYT 510 G). This course will present the basic principles of Cytopathology applied to the cellular samples obtained from the female reproductive system. Topics covered are the gross and microscopic anatomy, physiology and pathology of the cervix. This course will establish a foundation for identifying and understanding the basic epithelial cell types. Benign, reactive, and infectious conditions will be discussed. Infectious organisms and the cellular changes they produce will be identified. Pre-malignant and malignant conditions will be discussed and identified on cytologic specimens obtained primarily from the Pap Test. Cellular changes induced by therapies and environmental entities will be examined and criteria to identify these will be discussed. In the laboratory, students will learn in an experiential setting by examining both pre-diagnosed and unknown cases from the FGT that demonstrate a wide variety of benign to malignant conditions. (4); Prerequisite: BIO 215, BIO 216, BIO 235 or equivalent; Lecture and Laboratory

CYT 620 G 
Exfoliative Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology I (formerly CYT 520). This course will present the basic principles of cytopathology applied to the cellular samples obtained from a variety of body sites through brushings, washings and scrapings. Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiology and pathology of these sites will be explored. Specimens from the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract will be examined. This course will expand on the foundation for identifying and understanding the basic epithelial cell types that began in Cytopathology of the Female Genital Tract (FGT). Benign, reactive and infectious conditions will be discussed. Infectious organisms and the cellular changes they produce will be identified. Atypical and malignant conditions and their cellular appearance on a variety of cytologic specimens will be explored. Cellular changes induced by therapies and environmental entities will be examined and criteria to identify these will be discussed. In the laboratory, students will learn in an experiential setting by examining both pre-diagnosed and unknown cases from these sites that demonstrate a wide variety of benign to malignant conditions. (2); Prerequisite: CYT 610; Lecture and Laboratory

CYT 630 G 
Exfoliative Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology II (formerly CYT 530 G). This course will present the basic principles of cytopathology applied to the cellular samples obtained from a variety of body sites through brushings washings and scrapings.Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiology and pathology of these sites will be explored. Specimens from the genital urinary system, body cavity fluids and cerebral spinal fluid will be examined. Benign, reactive and infectious conditions will be discussed. Infectious organisms and the cellular changes they produce will be identified. Atypical and malignant conditions and their cellular appearance on a variety of cytologic specimens will be explored. Cellular changes induced by therapies and environmental entities will be examined and criteria to identify these will be discussed. In the laboratory, students will learn in an experiential setting by examining both pre-diagnosed and unknown cases from these sites that demonstrate a wide variety of benign to malignant conditions. (2); Prerequisite: CYT 610, CYT 620; Lecture and Laboratory

CYT 640 G and CYT 650 G 
Cytopreparatory Techniques I and II (formerly CYT 540 G; CYT 550 G). These courses will develop the skills necessary to prepare a wide variety of specimens. It will also teach students how to select and apply the appropriate staining technique for each specimen. Techniques for fine needle aspiration procedures and immediate adequacy assessments will be explored. Students will learn various aspects of laboratory management and how to comply with all State, OSHA and Federal regulations in a working laboratory. Emphasis will be placed on safe, efficient and effective handling techniques. Students will make a collection of representative slides from a variety of body sites using expired specimens donated from clinical affiliates. (1 each); Prerequisites: Bio 214, BIO 216, BIO 235 or equivalent

CYT 660 
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology I (formerly CYT 560). This course will present the basic principles of cytopathology applied to the cellular samples obtained through fine needle aspiration (FNA) from a variety of body sites where lesions can be identified by radiological techniques. Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiology and pathology of these sites will be explored. Specimens from the liver, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, ovaries and lymph nodes will be examined. The course will also include FNA of unusual lesions, including: mediastinal lesions, bone and soft tissue lesions and pediatric tumors. Benign, reactive and infectious conditions will be discussed. Infectious organisms and the cellular changes they produce will be identified. Atypical and malignant conditions and their cellular appearance will be explored. Cellular changes induced by therapies and environmental entities will be examined and criteria to identify these will be discussed. In the laboratory,students will learn in an experiential setting by examining both pre-diagnosed and unknown cases from these sites that demonstrate a wide variety of benign to malignant conditions. (3); Prerequisites: CYT 610, CYT 620 and CYT 630; Lecture and Laboratory

CYT 670 
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology II (formerly CYT 570). This course will present the basic principles of cytopathology applied to the cellular samples obtained through fine needle aspiration (FNA) from a variety of body sites where lesions can be identified by radiological techniques. Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiology and pathology of these sites will be explored. Specimens from the breasts, thyroid gland and salivary glands will be examined. Benign, reactive and infectious conditions will be discussed. Infectious organisms and the cellular changes they produce will be identified. Atypical and malignant conditions and their cellular appearance will be explored. Cellular changes induced by therapies and environmental entities will be examined and criteria to identify these will be discussed. In the laboratory students will learn in an experiential setting by examining both pre-diagnosed and unknown cases from these sites that demonstrate a wide variety of benign to malignant conditions. (3); Prerequisite: CYT 660; Lecture and Laboratory

CYT 770 G 
Clinical Practicum I (formerly CYT 590 G). This course consists of two clinical rotations, the first one lasting seven weeks and the second for one week at two different clinical affiliate laboratories. Students rotate one week in a laboratory that deals with adjuvant methodologies such as molecular diagnostics, flow cytometry or proteomics. Students “shadow” a teaching cytotechnologist through their daily routine and participate in all laboratory activities as permitted. Students are expected to pre-screen cases that will later be re-screened by the teaching cytotechnologist, participate in preparation and staining of specimens, and any FNA, Tumor Board, Tissue Correlation and Patient Follow-up activities that their teaching cytotechnologist deems appropriate. (3); Prerequisite: CYT 670

CYT 780 G 
Clinical Practicum II (formerly CYT 600 G). This course is a continuation of CYT 770 with two clinical rotations, scheduled as described for CYT 770. (6); Prerequisite: CYT 770

Economics 

ECN 101 
Introduction to Economics. The course covers basic economic principles applied to current social issues and problems. Topics covered will typically include inflation, unemployment, wage and price controls, welfare, social security, national debt,health programs, food prices, pollution, crime, mass transit, revenue sharing, multinationals, population, and energy. This course will prepare students to master fundamental economic concepts, applying tools (graphs, statistics, equations) to the understanding of operations and institutions of economic systems. Students will study the basic economic principles of micro and macroeconomics, international economics, comparative economics systems, measurement and methods. (3)

ECN 317 
Health Economics. In this course, we will learn how to apply economic tools to the study of health and medical care issues. We will examine the special features of medical care as a commodity, the demand for health and medical care services, the economic explanations for the behavior of medical care providers (i.e., physicians and hospitals), the functioning of insurance markets, and technology diffusion. Our discussions will touch on current policy topics such as the prospective payment system, relative value scales, insurance reform, rationing, and price regulation. We will also be examining the role of and economic justification for government involvement in the medical care system. Finally, we will use the tools we have learned to review and analyze various proposals for health care reform. (3)

ECN 325 
Econometrics. This course introduces students to multiple regression methods for analyzing data in economics and related disciplines. Extensions include regression with discrete random variables, instrumental variables regression, analysis of random experiments and quasi-experiments, and regression with time series data. Accordingly, the emphasis of the course is on empirical applications. (3)

ETHICS 

ETH 305 
Provost’s Honors Circle Seminar I. This year-long three credit course is divided into two semesters, with the first semester consisting of one credit hour/ week and the second semester consisting of two credit hours/ week. As a hybrid course, the second semester will entail more online-time. The first semester focuses on diseases/ illnesses and our understandings and perceptions of them. Students will investigate the portrayal of a health problem in literature, film, and social media. (1)Prerequisite: Member of Provost’s Honors Circle

ETH 306 
Provost’s Honors Circle Seminar II. This year-long three credit course is divided into two semesters, with the first semester consisting of one credit hour/ week and the second semester consisting of two credit hours/ week. As a hybrid course, the second semester will entail more online-time. The first semester focuses on diseases/ illnesses and our understandings and perceptions of them. The second semester focuses on some of the power disparities that exist in health care; we will consider cross-cultural, racial and ethnic, and global and environmental issues. (2); Prerequisite: Member of Provost’s Honors Circle

ETH 310 
Bioethics (formerly LAS 225). In this course students consider the impact of modern medical technology, including drugs, on matters of ethics and policy. The course focuses on reading and application of ethical theory, as it applies to critically understanding and improving morally-grounded clinical care. Special consideration is given to how personal and professional identities shape our ethical duties and responses, through reading feminist perspectives on ethics. Topics will vary, but may include genetic counseling, reproductive ethics, end-of-life care, do-not-resuscitate orders, informed consent in treatment and in research, the right to refuse treatment, the allocation of scarce medical resources, and ethical problems of the clinic versus public health. In addition, we make use of case studies, occasionally films, and/or presentations with expert guests. (3); Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor

ETH 315
Health, Disease, and Authority in Medicine. Modern medicine has relied heavily upon scientific authority to make factual claims about health and disease. Providing good medical care, however, involves knowing more than "just the facts."This class is an opportunity to think carefully about biomedicine’s proper role in defining core medical and public health concepts like health, disease, and illness. What is the proper role of technology in health care? How do medicalized systems shape what we can know and how we can act? What are the basis and limits of clinical diagnoses? What authority do patients have to speak about their own health conditions? How do answering these questions improve our ability to provide morally grounded patient care?(3); Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor

ETH 320
Research Ethics Workshop. Examining ethical issues arising from research in biomedicine and science and focusing on research ethics is essential for public health and social science students. This class will introduce and analyze ethical issues as related to scientific research. (1); Corequisite: SOC 301

ETH 410
pecial Topics in Bioethics. This reading-intensive seminar will focus on philosophical theory and its applications to contemporary problems in medicine, science, and technology. Our rigorous group investigation of active moral problems and philosophical questions will draw from both modern and historical texts. Topics will vary based on the instructor’s and students’ needs and interests. Please note: this is not intended to be an overview course in ethics; instead, we will read deeply around a focused set of topics. (3); Prerequisite:  Junior standing or permission of the instructor

ETH 510
Health Care and Human Values (formerly LAS 611). This capstone experience involves readings from literature and current publications that deal with ethical issues in health care and medical research. This course exposes the students to theories of ethical decision making and to works that treat such topics as the responsibilities of the scientist, the use of drugs in our society, cultural communication gaps in health care, health care in the developing world, and euthanasia. It provides students with the opportunity to explore the ethical dimensions of these topics in written and discussion form. (3)Prerequisite:  P3 in the PharmD program or permission of the instructor

ETH 610 G
Ethics in Research (formerly PSC 671). This course includes a discussion format based on ethical issues involved in the research process. Students will have focused reading on the ethical theory and its application to issues involved in research. This involves close readings, case studies, and in-class discussions. Topics covered will include, but are not limited to, ethical theories as applied to research ethics, ethical issues before research committees, ethical issues involving human and animal subjects, reporting of research, conflict of interest, and the creation of scientist as ethical agents. (1)

GENERAL  

GEN 141 
Introduction to Law. This course will introduce students to various aspects of the legal system in the United States. Students will understand the history that formed the foundation for American law and the administration of justice, including a review of Constitutional Law and the evolution of the Supreme Court's review of the Amendments over time. Legislative, Judicial, and Administrative processes will be reviewed. Students will distinguish between civil and criminal cases, review landmark decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, and study various areas of law in detail including Criminal Law & Procedure, as well as various types of Civil Laws & Procedure, including Family Law, Matrimonial Law and Torts. (3)

SOCIAL SCIENCES 

HHS 401 
Health and Human Sciences Capstone. The Capstone Experience should be a health related, project or applied experience that synthesizes your training at ACPHS with practical, real-world experiences. One applied public health clinical, research, or community-based experience is required during the senior year. Students can choose to complete the Capstone Experience over 1 or 2 semesters in their senior year at ACPHS and can pursue between 3 and 6 academic credit hours. Students must complete status updates throughout the semester, must present their projects/papers/experiences back to the HHS community at ACPHS,and complete a brief evaluation of their experience. (3); Prerequisite: Senior standing in the Health and Human Sciences Program or permission of the instructor

HISTORY

HIS 110 
American Government. This introductory course is designed to familiarize students with the concepts, principles, procedures,institutions and conflicts essential to American government and politics. The course is divided into four parts: The first part focuses on the basic features of our constitutional structure: the separation of powers, federalism, checks and balances, and limited government. The second part concentrates on the political inputs: public opinion, political parties,and interest groups. The third deals with the three branches of government: Congress, the President, and the Supreme Court.The fourth part focuses on the policy outputs of government, both domestic and foreign. The course will place an emphasis on health policy. (3)

HIS 115 
American Frontier (formerly LAS 278). This course analyzes the concept of the frontier in French, Spanish and English colonial histories and how those merged into the United States frontier. Students will explore the mythological icon of the frontier in American history as well as specific political, environmental, and gender elements of the European, Euro-American and Native American frontiers. Last, students will explore water rights, urbanization, the Dustbowl and other elements of the American West, the region most associated with "the Frontier." (3)

HIS 120 
Native Americans Through Their Own Eyes (formerly LAS 275). This course addresses Native American history and literature from the perspective of native writers and historians. What are the major issues from their vantage? Has the native concept of “history” and “literature” changed since the advent of literacy? Can only natives write about their communities, and, if so, how does a member of one tribe gain consent to write about another tribe with a different culture? Lastly, what do these writers and historians see as the future of their people? (3) 

HIS 125 
Southwestern American Indian History (formerly LAS 239). In this course, students study various elements of Southwestern Indian culture and history from prehistoric times to the modern era. This is a history rather than an anthropology class, but various elements of Native Southwestern culture and society will be incorporated within the historical narrative. (3)

HIS 130 
The Indian in American History (formerly LAS 913). This course examines how Native American peoples came to the continent(examined through their own myths and modern anthropological interpretations) and the cultures that developed before 1492.The bulk of the course examines chronological historical interaction between Europeans and natives after 1492 and the way this affected the cultures of both groups. (3)

HIS 140 
Early American History. The course examines the history of areas that came to compose the United States by 1840, using the East Coast, Southwest and Gulf Coast as areas of emphasis. The majority of the course will be devoted to the formation of the "United States of America" along the Atlantic coast and the westward progression of that country across the North American continent. As a class we will examine the major cultures, demographies, military conflicts, and political and religious structures which shaped the growth of the US before 1840. This course stresses historical content but, just as important,hones critical thinking skills concerning how we as Americans interpret history. (3)

HIS 141 
Modern American History. The course examines the history of the United States from 1877 to the present. As a class we will examine the major cultures, demographic shifts, military conflicts, and political and religious structures that shaped the United States during that time. The course stresses historical content but, just as important, hones critical thinking skills concerning how we as Americans interpret history. We will utilize a history text but supplement that not only with primary documents that reflect how people of the time felt about the points we discuss, but also secondary articles interpreting historical events from a modern perspective. Since ACPHS emphasizes health care, a large part of our readings and class discussion will focus on health-related topics, such as the effect Spanish flu had on the United States and the world during the WWI era, or how American reaction to the polio epidemic reflects Cold War policies and attitudes. (3)

HIS 210 
Hitler’s Empire (formerly LAS 134). This course examines Germany, Europe and the world as they were shaped or influenced by Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist movement. Among the issues examined: the historical and cultural factors that account for the rise of National Socialism; the extent to which Hitler’s personality shaped National Socialist policy and practice;Nazi racial policies and the Holocaust; the economy of and everyday life in the Third Reich; the foreign policy of National Socialism; the role of the S.S. in the Nazi state and the long-term impact of the National Socialist experience on German and world history. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

HIS 215 
Vietnam War (formerly LAS 891). This course examines America’s most controversial war: its background, course and conclusion; the war on the battlefield and the war at home; and the costs and consequences for both the United States and Vietnam. The course will examine fiction, journalism, historical analysis, political theory, film and popular music. (3)Prerequisite: HUM 102

HIS 220 
Era of the Russian Revolution (formerly LAS 330).This course examines the rise, dominance and decline of Soviet Communism in the 20th century. Students study the economic, political and social conditions that led to revolution; the ideologies that spurred men and women to action; the personalities involved; the nature of the Communist state that resulted; the reaction of the rest of the world; the revolutions of the 1980s and 1990s and the future of Communism. The focus is on careful analysis and discussion of literature, films, music and art – vehicles for understanding communism and Russian life and culture. (3)Prerequisite: HUM 102

HIS 225 
The American Civil War (formerly LAS 265). This course offers an introduction to the bloodiest war in American history: the Civil War. The course examines the differences that led to the conflict; the social, political and economic characteristics of the North and South; the nature of the war; emancipation and its consequences; conditions on the home front; the Reconstruction era after the war; and how American memory of the war over the past 140 years has helped to define and shape the nation that the United States is today. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

HIS 230 
America in a Global Context. This course explores the relationships between the United States and such regions of the world as the Caribbean, South America, Africa, East Asia, the Pacific Rim, Europe, and North America. Emphasis is on social,cultural, political, and economic interactions over the past two centuries and in the contemporary world. The goal of the course is to illustrate how the United States has always been part of the world, and, at the same time, how the world has always been part of the United States. (3)

HIS 310 
International Relations (formerly LAS 127). This course examines the changing nature of power in world politics since the end of World War II. Topics include the causes of international conflict, the consequences of international economic competition,ecology, human rights and international law, the future of the individual nation-state and regional and global government,global ideologies of the future and the “hot spots” of the world – today and in the near future. Students are required to develop and maintain a working familiarity with current developments around the globe. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

HIS 315 
Modern American Foreign Policy (formerly LAS 131). This course examines the theory and practice of foreign policy as conducted in the United States in the post-World War II/post-Cold War eras. Topics include historical traditions of U.S. foreign relations, the role of the presidency, Congress and non-governmental organizations in making and influencing foreign policy, concepts of national security and national interest, war as an instrument of foreign policy, the constitutional and legal bases of U.S. foreign policy and contemporary problems in U.S. foreign policy. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

HIS 320 
American National Character (formerly LAS 333). In this course we look into some of the works, from Tocqueville’s Democracy in America to Bellah’s Habits of the Heart, in which travelers, novelists and social scientists have tried to describe,explore and explain the uniquely American character. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

HIS 325 
History of the Plagues. The course examines the history and literature of four plagues: the bubonic plague, the "virgin soil" epidemics of the Americas, the Spanish flu, and AIDS. We will look at physical causes of the diseases, immediate cultural responses, and the way these plagues produced long-lasting effects on local and global cultures, politics, and demographics.(3); Prerequisites: HUM 102, COM 115

HIS 330 
History of Public Health and Medicine. This course explores the history of public health and medicine in America from the early colonial period to the present. The course will address the key factors that have contributed to the decline in mortality and rise in life expectancy in the United States. Finally, the course will examine the impact that the United States has had upon public health across the globe. (3); Prerequisite: 3rd year standing or permission of the instructor

HEALTH OUTCOMES AND INFORMATICS

HOI 610 G 
Quantitative Regression Analysis (formerly PAD 725 G Econometrics). This course introduces students to multiple regression methods for analyzing data in economics and related disciplines. Extensions include regression with discrete random variables, instrumental variables regression, analysis of random experiments and quasi-experiments, and regression with time series data. Accordingly, the emphasis of the course is on empirical applications. (3)

HOI 615 G 
Health Outcomes (formerly PAD 615 G). This course will provide students with an introduction to the principles and techniques of pharmacoeconomics and health outcomes evaluation, and to the methodologies used by decisionmakers and stakeholders to draft and implement health policy. It builds on the economic principles presented in health economics (US and Global Health Care Systems) to describe the major components of the current U.S. healthcare system. Building on that foundation, the course introduces the techniques used for evaluation of health care interventions. These methods provide the basis for measuring and assessing the economic and non-economic consequences of healthcare interventions, emphasizing drug therapy, and pharmaceutical services. Examples of some of the economic methods introduced include:cost of illness analysis, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and decision analysis. Non-economic measures discussed include general and disease specific quality-of-life (QOL) assessments and health status measurement. Students will demonstrate the ability to critique published studies which use pharmacoeconomic or health outcomes techniques, assessing the quality of the research and drawing relevant conclusions. (3)

HOI 625 G 
Health Systems (formerly PAD 675 G). This course presents a systematic comparative analysis of the evolution, administrative structure, finance, and provision of medical care in selected countries throughout the world. Equity/inequity and the current and looming effects of globalization will be explored. This course will expand your understanding of health and illness by looking at them as socio-cultural and socio-economic phenomena. Important differences rooted in culture, ethnicity, social,economic and political factors will be examined to encourage innovative "framing" of U.S. health public policies. This course presents and facilitates the development of an analysis of major health service delivery and management issues from an international perspective. Each country in the world possesses and implements a unique health service delivery system. While there may be many factors, components and issues in common, there are nonetheless many differences. It is important to learn about and analyze other country’s healthcare systems, to learn how they treat similar issues and to discover innovations.Improvement often comes through change and innovations, and this study will not neglect the opportunity to learn from others,especially those middle and lower income countries implementing interesting and innovative reforms. By utilizing a comparable model of exploration, we will gain an understanding of the similarities and differences of industrial countries, third world countries and tribal programs in the US. (3)

HOI 635 G 
Statistical Programming (formerly PAD 636 G). The goal of this course is to introduce students to the use of the SAS programming language for analysis of health outcomes data. Students will learn to use the SAS environment to write programs for reading and processing data and to perform basic data management tasks. This course will use Base SAS and SAS Enterprise Guide to provide access to SAS software, and course-related data. (3)

HOI 645 G 
Epidemiology I (formerly PAD 693 G). This course covers the principles and methods of epidemiologic investigation including describing the patterns of illness in populations and research designs for investigating the etiology of disease. The course
introduces quantitative measures to determine risk, association and procedures for standardization of rates. It also reviews application of basic principles and methods in the design and conduct of epidemiologic studies. Topics include the development of research questions; overview of epidemiologic study designs; sampling, sample size, and selection bias; techniques for data collection, sources of secondary data, and the evaluation of measurement and information bias;confounding and effect modification; techniques for simple and stratified analyses; and an introduction to mathematical modeling in epidemiology. (3)

HOI 646 G 
Epidemiology II (formerly PAD 694 G). Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to control health problems. These determinants are often seen in clinical practice and clinicians have a real opportunity to systematically evaluate various exposure-outcome relationships. The purpose of this course is to build on the foundations of epidemiology taught in Epidemiology 1. The emphasis of this course is application & variations on epidemiologic theory. The course is designed to develop critical thinking skills through the critique of journal articles, classroom discussion, lecture, and group exercises. Students will become aware of how to efficiently design and interpret epidemiologic studies. The course exposes students to common variants of traditional study designs and how these variations affect the validity & precision of exposure-response relationships.Epidemiology 2 has a greater emphasis on confounding, selection and information biases and techniques to minimize these biases using contemporary research methods. Logistic regression and other multivariate analyses are among these methods and this course reviews the basic concepts necessary to interpret these types of analyses (3); Prerequisite: HOI 645

HOI 655 G 
Health Economics (formerly PAD 610 G). This course is designed to introduce students to the economics of health care, with an emphasis on individual (i.e. demand side) decisions. We will examine how to apply microeconomic tools to analyze health care issues. Topics to be covered include demand for health and health care, individual responses to incentives inherent in health insurance markets, labor market effects, and health capital and health behavior decisions. Additionally, methodological issues for policy evaluation including cost-effectiveness and cost benefit analysis and estimating policy effects will be examined. Discussions will cover theoretical foundations as well as empirical methods and findings. (3)

HOI 665 G 
Health Informatics (formerly PAD 741 G). Health Informatics will introduce students to an interrelated set of theories,issues, technologies and methods related to the desire to improve healthcare through information technology. Different perspectives on the topic will be presented, with a particular emphasis on human factors and organizational learning. Students will gain practical experience in developing small health-related web applications. This will assist them in understanding the practical difficulties involved in improving systems through technology. In addition to a set of core health informatics topics, students will be given a set of optional topics from which they will choose one to research in depth. (3)

HOI 690 G 
Topics in Public Health (formerly PAD 691 G). This course will provide students with a basic understanding of the public health component of the U.S. health care system. Students will be introduced to the historical development of public health(e.g., food and water safety, sanitation and disease monitoring). The current U.S. public health system – both at the state and federal levels – will then be discussed. Key measures of public health will be covered, with an emphasis on disease prevention and in areas where pharmacists contribute to public health goals (e.g., immunization programs). (3)

HOI 710 G 
Introduction to R Computing. This course is an introduction to the statistical computing environment R. In this course you will learn how to write programs in R in order to perform tasks that quantitative researchers must perform. You will learn the packages and functions that are used in statistical analysis as well as techniques for managing data and using graphs to visually describe data. (3); Prerequisite: MAT 610; HOI 610

HOI 720 G 
Big Data Analytics. Big data refers to the idea that analysts manage, analyze, visualize, and extract useful information from large, diverse, distributed, and heterogeneous data sets to accelerate the progress of discovery, innovation, and information. Data are generated at such a great speed today that there is such large amounts of data that the challenge is how to develop efficient and effective computational tools to analyze the data to gain insight and make predictions; the interdisciplinary approach to machine learning, data mining, statistics, management, and analysis. This class will provide an overview of advanced machine learning, data mining, and statistical techniques that arise in data analytic applications. You will learn and practice data analytic techniques. (3); Prerequisite: MAT 610; PAD 636, PAD 725

HOI 750 G 
Capstone (formerly PAD 750 G). The capstone project is an integrative activity with a variety of final products based on the degree program and type of project undertaken. It is an opportunity for a student to gain additional training in one or more areas of health outcomes and informatics. The scope of the projects will vary based on the industry placement or investigators involved and may include but not limited to the examination of the primary literature on the subject,organizing and modeling data, performing health outcomes and informatics analysis, and providing recommendations. The common elements for each project is the production of a high quality project (research project or exhaustive case studies), the requirement for oral presentation of the final project and review by the corporate and faculty supervisor. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of Program Director

HOI 751 G 
Industry Practicum (formerly PAD 751 G). The industry practicum is part of a capstone experience for students in ACPHS's master's degree program in Health Outcomes and Informatics. The practicum offers an educational opportunity for students to work for corporate clients doing real-time work, under the guidance of faculty, to analyze problems, negotiate requirements and scope, and solution development. The experience integrates all of a student's previous coursework. The capstone project is an integrative activity with a variety of final products based on the type of project undertaken. It is an opportunity for a student to gain additional training in one or more areas of health outcomes and informatics. (3); Prerequisite: Permission
of Program Director

HOI 761 G 
Thesis (formerly PAD 733 G). Students will pursue a thesis project in a health outcomes research area selected to appropriately match their chosen career goals. In conjunction with the thesis advisor, students will perform an in-depth literature search and develop a testable hypothesis. The student and mentor then will work together to define a series of experiments that can be conducted to test the hypothesis. The student will learn the necessary techniques, conduct the experiments and analyze the data under the guidance of the mentor. Thesis work is compiled in a dissertation and presented as part of the thesis defense. (1-6); Prerequisite: Permission of Program Director

HUMANITIES 

HUM 101 
The Pre-Modern World. The first semester in a required three-course sequence, is an interdisciplinary course that surveys major world intellectual and cultural traditions from pre-history to the onset of the Modern Era (circa 1700 C.E.). We will read widely in history, literature, philosophy, fine arts, politics and economics to develop an understanding of the interrelated forces that shaped the dominant cultures across the globe. The study of themes will be employed to engage with the topics of the course including faith and reason, nature and civilization, individual and community, identity and the other, gender, and technology. (3)

HUM 102 
The Modern World. The second semester in a required three-course sequence, is an interdisciplinary course that builds upon and incorporates ideas and skills from Humanities 101 as it surveys major world intellectual and cultural traditions from the onset of the Modern World (circa 1600 C.E.) to the middle of the 20th century and the post-World War II world (circa 1950). Students read widely in history, literature, philosophy, fine arts, politics, and economics to develop an understanding of the interrelated forces that shaped dominant cultures across the globe. The study of themes (faith and reason, nature and civilization, individual and community, identity and the other, gender, technology) helps students to engage with the topics of the course and develop critical thinking skills. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 140 
Travel in Literature and Images (formerly LAS 171). In this course, students study travel literature and images beginning with Homer’s The Odyssey and ending with contemporary accounts. Students also create their own travel reports to share with the class during the last few weeks of the semester. This course asks students to consider not only how the act of travel but also how representations of travel can help us to understand ourselves, others, and the world. (3)

HUM 145 
Challenged, Banned, Censored: Visual Art and Literature (formerly LAS 233). This course investigates various works of art and literature that have been, for whatever reason, challenged and banned from the public eye. Censors claim they are preserving the values of society, but their opponents claim they violate an individual’s right to intellectual freedom. Discussions on visual art treat the shocking first Impressionist shows as well as the Nazi exhibit of “Degenerate Art.” Readings include originally challenged or banned works that are now crucial elements of our cultural literacy. (3)

HUM 155 
African-American Literature and Music (formerly LAS 257). In this course, students study African-American literature and music to understand African-American experiences and culture in historical, national, and global contexts. We consider how African-American literature and music (e.g., spirituals, blues, jazz, soul, and rap) can help us to understand ourselves,others, and the world. (3)

HUM 160 
Fiction and Film (formerly LAS 334). This course examines five novels critically in terms of the authors’ lives and the society of the time, and then considers the films made from these novels. (3)

HUM 165 
Introduction to Greek Mythology through Literature and Film (formerly LAS 337).  Greek and Greco-Roman mythology has continued into the modern era via such diverse avenues as poetry, theater, art, political theory, philosophy, and archaeology. Students in this course will examine not only the myths themselves and how mythology has endured for thousands of years but also what Greek and Greco-Roman myths illustrate about the broader human condition.  In short, why do these myths endure, and does their survival reflect the broader nature of humanity?  Students will argue mythology from the perspectives of gender, history, literature, philosophy, warfare, and anthropology. Last, they will study the various ways we see Classical mythology reflected in modern American and global societies. (3)

HUM 201
The Contemporary World. Building on the foundation established in HUM 101 & 102, this course presents a thematic approach to understanding contemporary issues and events. This course requires students to employ the themes of faith and reason, nature and civilization, individual and community, identity and the other, gender, and technology to engage with, understand, and evaluate the contemporary world. Topics and areas may include the following: The U.S. in a Global Context, The Middle East,The Digital Revolution, 21st Century Health Issues, The Use of Natural Resources, Nationalism, Religious Fundamentalism,Globalization, The Post-September 11th World, Contemporary Social Movements, as well as other timely topics and/or areas (3)Prerequisite: HUM 102

HUM 220 
Medical Humanities. This medical humanities survey course studies how the interdisciplinary engagement of the arts, social sciences, and medicine adds to medical education and practice. This course aims to stimulate and enhance students’ critical inquiry skills and growth in empathy and compassionate care. Important issues in life, in health, and in our psychological,emotional, and existential experiences as human beings will be explored through multiple genres and perspectives, including literature, film, history, philosophy, religion, and ethics. Topics may include but are not limited to: the history of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship, death and dying, doctor-writers, narratives of illness, illness in film, medicine and power, religion and bioethics, suffering and hope. (3); Prerequisite: 2nd year standing or permission of the instructor

HUM 245 
Human Rights in the Age of Genocide. Designed for students who wish explore the concept of human rights in an era when genocide has become a common warring practice in various regions of the world, this course studies significant genocides of various ethnic and minority groups. The course will look at the universal declaration of human rights and the practices of human rights groups such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and engage the various readings and films/documentaries of genocidal events, the precipitating events and the aftermath of those genocides. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 250 
Visual Art and Literature of the 20th Century. What is “modern?” (formerly LAS 234). This course concentrates on the growing sense of modernity that began in European culture at the end of the 19th century, moved to the United States after World War II and now is creating the reaction of “post-modernism.” Class discussion focuses on the rapidly shifting movements of modern art and parallel developments in literature. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

HUM 255 
Caribbean Literature and Music (formerly LAS 258). In this course, students study Caribbean literature and music to understand Caribbean, and especially Afro-Caribbean, experiences and cultures in historical, national, and global contexts.This course also includes a unit on health and health care in the Caribbean. Overall, this course considers how Caribbean literature and music (e.g., calypso, reggae, dancehall, soca) can help us to understand ourselves, others, and the world.
(3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 260 
African Literature, Film, and Music (formerly LAS 252). In this course, students study African literature, film, and music to understand African experiences and cultures in historical, national, and global contexts. This course also includes a unit on health and health care in Africa. Overall, this course considers how African literature, film, and music can help us to understand ourselves and others with an emphasis on appreciating the impact of African cultures throughout the world. This course is taught in conjunction with ACPHS’s annual Africana Film Series. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 265 
Changing Images of Asia (formerly LAS 254). The basic assumption underlying this course is that popular novels and related films have had a dramatic, and often negative, impact on shaping our images of Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. This course will critically review and examine popular readings about Asia in general and Southeast Asia in particular and feature films based on the readings. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 270 
Japanese Language and Culture I (formerly LAS 240). This course offers basic language instruction and an introduction to the history and culture of Japan. Students will learn about the rich cultural history of Japan as a whole and also see its progression from feudal to modern society. The course will critically review literary and popular readings and also feature films and documentaries based on the readings. (3); Prerequisite: COM 115

HUM 275 
Japanese Language and Culture II (formerly LAS 260). In this second introductory course on Japanese, there is a greater emphasis on language with the goal of developing both conversational and reading skills at a solid basic level. With regard to written language, students will be expected to have already learned the hiragana and katakana syllabaries. This course will make extensive use of kana while beginning to learn kanji (Chinese characters). The conversational aspects of language will focus on expanding vocabulary, grammatical structure, and sentence complexity. The language component will require extensive practice by the student outside of class time. The cultural component of the course will involve modern day Japan(post World War II) and interplay between various media and the evolution of the Japanese language. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 270 or permission of the instructor

HUM 280 
Studies in Leadership (formerly LAS 341). This course takes a biographical and theoretical approach in exploring the origins and nature of effective leadership. In particular, the course examines the lives of representative “leaders” in selected fields – including the military, business, education, the arts and health care – in order to identify the characteristics of effective leadership and to determine whether those characteristics are innate or learnable. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

HUM 285 
Culture and Customs of Senegal. This course introduces students to the culture and customs of Senegal (West Africa) including the role of culture and customs in health and health care. Although this course can be taken without going to Africa, the course prepares students for a 3-week (June - July) study abroad in Senegal. Students who go to Senegal intern in one of the following areas: healthcare, art therapy, orphan care, women’s rights, the environment, or teaching. Pairs of students reside with selected Senegalese families. Activities in the capital Dakar include attending lectures at the West African Research Center and day trips. During a 10-day guided tour of the country, we visit the Holy Sufi City of Touba, small villages, an artist colony, Saloum Delta National Park, and go on wildlife safaris. As determined by a student’s program and in consultation with the course instructor and the student’s program director, a student in an appropriate year of study can earn 3 credits for this course and then additional credit by fulfilling the course requirements of CLK 803 for IPPE in Patient Assessment credit, or HHS 401 for Capstone Experience credit. (3)Prerequisite: HUM 101

HUM 386 
Culture, Customs, and Health of Belize. Although this course can be taken without leaving Albany, this course prepares students for a 2-week study and medical mission in Belize (during the January following the fall semester). During the fall semester, students learn about Belize and give presentations on tropical diseases, developing-world health care, and health conditions specific to Belize. Students also prepare pamphlets and educational skits and practice the basic health-clinic skills they will use in January. In Belize, students immerse themselves in Belizean culture by living with families in San Ignacio (2 or more students per family), attending lectures and workshops, visiting Maya ruins, hiking, caving, and snorkeling the world’s second longest barrier coral reef. In villages along Belize’s border with Guatemala, students set up and run health clinics, participate in medical home visits, and educate grade-school students about health and hygiene. As determined by a student’s program and in consultation with the course instructor and the student’s program director, a student in an appropriate year of study can earn 3 credits for this course and then additional credit by fulfilling course requirements of CLK 803 for IPPE in Patient Assessment credit, or HHS 401 for Capstone Experience credit. (3); Prerequisite:COM 115, HUM 102

INTEGRATED PROBLEM SOLVING

IPS 301 and IPS 302 
Integrated Problem Solving Workshops I and II. In the Integrated Problem Solving Workshops students will be required to solve problems which incorporate information from the courses offered during that term as well as previously mastered material. The goal of these workshops is to assist students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that develops problem solving skills. These workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries so that students will need information from more than one class to solve the problem and to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to use critical thinking skills, effectively communicate through speaking and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peers under the direction of appropriate faculty members. (1 each); Prerequisite: Doctor of Pharmacy students only.IPS 301 is identical to PSC331.

IPS 311 
Workshop Leader Seminar. IPS311 is designed to provide workshop leaders with the tools necessary to effectively lead students groups through prepared workshop problems in diverse subject areas. Topics of multiple intelligences and learning styles,learning theories, biases (race, gender, political and religious among others) and how they alter leaning will be discusses in addition to workshop specific content. (1); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

IPS 401 
Integrated Problem Solving Workshops III. The Integrated Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term (and build on previously mastered material) in a way that assists students to understand and apply course material through an active learning environment that supports the development of problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to employ critical thinking skills, effectively communicate and function efficiently in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peers under the direction of a faculty course coordinator. IPS3 will build on the skills that were developed in IPS 1 – 2. The integrated problem solving workshops will integrate information from previously mastered courses with the courses offered during the Fall P2 semester in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills.IPS III will begin to incorporate pharmacology and therapeutic topic areas into a clinically oriented discussion, evidence-based decision making and SOAP note preparation.IPS3 will introduce students to a more therapeutically focused case-based approach to learning. Faculty teaching in the concurrently taught courses will author clinical cases that will be used in IPS3. (1); Prerequisite: IPS 301, IPS 302

IPS 402 
Integrated Problem Solving Workshops IV. The Integrated Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term (as well as previously mastered material) in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student.Students will be expected to employ critical thinking skills, effectively communicate through speaking and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peers under the direction of a faculty course coordinator. IPS4 will build upon the skills and tactics taught in IPS workshops 1 through 3. More specifically, this workshop will start to build more clinically oriented decision making and SOAP note documentation. For IPS4, students will take a more clinically oriented case-based approach to learning. Faculty teaching in the concurrently taught courses will author clinical cases that will be used in IPS4. Students will continue to advance the skills learned in IPS 1-3 with respect to evidence-based approaches to clinical cases, writing more complete and sophisticated SOAP notes, and engaging in critical thinking and problem-solving with respect to clincial scenarios which are developed using material taught in the previous and concurrent semester of Spring P2. (1); Prerequisite: IPS 301, IPS 302, IPS 401

IPS 501 
Integrated Problem-Solving Workshop V.  The Integrated Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term (as well as previously mastered material) in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to employ critical thinking skills, effectively communicate with peers and facilitators and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peer leaders or faculty members. IPS V will build upon the problem solving and patient-centered care skills introduced and reinforced in IPS workshops 1 through 4. IPS V assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to further develop and refine problem-solving skills. Building upon the problem-solving abilities and patient-centered care skills introduced and reinforced in previous IPS workshops, IPS V engages students in discussion of patient-oriented care that requires integration of course material and practice foundations from the previous semesters of the professional curriculum. IPS V is distinguished from previous IPS workshops by offering increasing complex patient case examples for students to be able to practice written and verbal professional communication that utilizes sound therapeutic thought processes and drug information retrieval skills for identifying and resolving medication-related problems in various patient care settings. Emphasis will be placed on the student ability to employ and articulate rational clinical decisions or recommendations that are evidence-based, including a formal written patient assessment and care plan in a formal Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan written “SOAP” note. (1); Prerequisites: IPS 301, IPS 302, IPS 401, IPS 402

IPS 502 
Integrated Problem-Solving Workshop VI. The Integrated Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term as well as previously mastered material in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to employ critical thinking skills, effectively communicate with peers and facilitators and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by faculty members. IPS-6 will build upon the problem solving and patient-centered care skills introduced and reinforced in IPS workshops 1 through 5. IPS-6 is the sixth and final workshop of the Integrated Problem Solving series. IPS-6 is a continuation of previous workshops in that it will be a small-group,facilitator-led discussion centered around patient care that integrates materials taught previously or concurrently in the required PharmD curriculum. IPS-6, however, is distinguished from previous workshops in that the complexity of patient cases will be enhanced and will require students to present at least one evidence-based professional presentation (seminar component). Cases for IPS-6 will be authored by Pharmacy Practice faculty and include challenging multidisciplinary patient scenarios, therapeutic controversies and actual and potential drug-related problems for students to evaluate. Students will be required to critically evaluate literature to synthesize appropriate evidence-based recommendations that will be presented in small group discussions as well as in individual formal seminar case presentations. The practice of Medication Therapy Management will be reinforced in IPS-6. (3); Prerequisites: IPS 301, IPS 302, IPS 401, IPS 402, IPS 501

LITERATURE 

LIT 130 
Creative Writing (formerly LAS 133). In this course, students read and write fiction, non-fiction and poetry. In a writing workshop setting, students also read and respond to each other’s work. (3) LIT 135 
The Short Story (formerly LAS 212). In this course, students read, discuss and interpret the short story as it occurs in one or more periods or places. (3)

LIT 140 
Utopian Literature (formerly LAS 216). Humans “dream of things that never were and say, ‘Why not?’” From descriptions of the Golden Age and Eden to the latest feminist science fiction, students analyze our changing ideas of the possibility of achieving and sustaining a perfect human society. (3)

LIT 145 
Crime and Punishment (formerly LAS 236). In this class, students read fiction, non-fiction and poetry and view films that deal with the issues of crime and punishment in society. Students write essays and journals responding to the texts and films, and investigate these issues in order to come to an understanding of the complexity of the issues and an awareness of their own stances on these questions. (3)

LIT 150 
Shakespeare (formerly LAS 237). This course focuses on six or seven of Shakespeare’s plays. Lectures provide biographical and historical background and class discussions concentrate on the texts themselves, considering structure, character development, imagery and theme. The class also considers the essential differences between comedies, tragedies, histories and romances and traces developing themes from one play to another as we move chronologically through selections of Shakespeare’s work. Assignments include journal responses, formal analytical essays and a final panel discussion of a motif traced from play to play throughout the semester. (3)

LIT 155 
The Novel (formerly LAS 321). In this course students read, discuss, and write about world novels. Selections may come from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and/or Asia. Discussion topics will include themes that illuminate our understanding of the human condition, structural and symbolic devices used by the writers, and historical and biographical contexts. Some attention will be given to defining the novel as a genre and tracing its development over time. Assignments include reading 4 – 6 novels, writing analyses of the novels, and presenting on a comparative thematic topic. (3)

LIT 160 
The Drama (formerly LAS 323). In this course, students study a selection of dramatic works ranging from Classical Greece to the present. Students engage with recurring issues central to the human experience as part of considering how the communal experience of “the theater” can help us to understand ourselves, others, and the world. (3)

LIT 165 
American Women Writers (formerly LAS 336). How many 19th and 20th century women writers can you name? This course will explore the works and contributions to American literature of some well-known and lesser-known women writers. We will consider several questions. Is there a tradition of American women writers? Do these writers have issues, concerns and themes in common? What are some of the historical and cultural forces that have shaped these writers? Do they speak to our own lives– as men and women – at the start of the 21st century? Students will respond to texts in a variety of writing experiences(journals, essays, fiction and poetry), develop confidence and competence as readers and writers and gain an appreciation for, and enjoyment of, the texts and the writers. (3)

LIT 170 
Chaucer (formerly LAS 331). This course introduces students primarily to Geoffrey Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” and peripherally to the author’s life and times. Through a close reading of selected tales, reactionary and analytical writing and individual and group oral presentations, students immerse themselves in Chaucer’s stories of a group of pilgrims setting off from London on a pilgrimage to the sHOIne of St. Thomas Becket, buried in Canterbury. The tales at once reveal the social structure and historical milieu of medieval England, thus broadening student understanding of the medieval world view and, by implication, our own, and prompt discussion about life choices, philosophies and attitudes. Simultaneously, students gain further experience in critical reading, thinking, writing and speaking. (3)

LIT 180 
Native American Mythology (formerly LAS 246). In this course, students study various elements of mythology from diverse Native American cultures of northern and central America. Particular themes relevant to native cultures are examined and then placed in the context of what they mean to native world views and world mythologies. Some of the major themes include creation myths, concepts of illness and death and cyclical time. Some of the major figures examined include Grandmother Spider, Changing Woman, Sedna and Coyote. (3)

LIT 210 
English Novel (formerly LAS 117). This course will provide a close critical reading of selected English novels, including the works of E.M. Forster, Aldous Huxley and Thomas Hardy. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

LIT 215 
American Literature (formerly LAS 147). This course considers the contributions of 20th and 21st century American literature, with an emphasis on character, structural and thematic analysis against archetypal patterns of lost innocence, the journey home and resurrection. The class will search for a tentative definition of the contemporary American hero from a diverse selection of authors. In written and oral assignments designed to develop their own responses to the literature, students will search for touchstones for their own lives and the lives they read about. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

LIT 220 
Suicide and/as Literature: East-West (formerly LAS 161). The phenomenon of suicide, familiar as an object of sociological inquiry and clinical therapeutic concern, also has been a prevalent narrative component of literary traditions throughout the world. This course will investigate suicide as a comparative conceptual device in a range of literary traditions extending from Europe to Africa, the United States, Japan and India. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

LIT 225 
World Masterpieces I (formerly LAS 253). This is the first of two courses offered to enhance the understanding of narratives that cover milestones in literature and culture from around the world. The canonical texts from various countries/regions will focus on the multiple origins and histories of the cultures and polities being considered. Selections range from the ancient (World Masterpieces I) to the modern (World Masterpieces II). (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

LIT 310 
Middle Eastern Literature and Film. In this course, students study Middle Eastern literature and film to understand Middle Eastern, and especially Muslim, experiences and culture in historical, national, and global contexts. We consider how Middle Eastern literature and film can help us to understand ourselves, others and the world. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

LIT 315 
Irish Literature Since 1900 (formerly LAS 413). This course considers the literature that emerged from 20th -century Ireland,literature formed both by the search for a national identity and by universal forces that transcend both time and place.Through reading and discussion of a selection of Irish fiction, drama and/or poetry, we gauge the power of the word to entertain, to communicate, to self-preserve and even to wage war. Assignments include journal responses, analytic essays and a final panel discussion of a motif traced throughout the readings during the semester. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

LIT 320 
The Epic (formerly LAS 311). The Epic is a course that focuses on defining and understanding the most ancient written genre of western culture. Students will examine epics from the ancient world to the present and come to an understanding of why the poem being studied is an epic, how this particular epic defines, and in some cases redefines, the genre, and what the universal themes of the piece say about the human condition. Possible epics for analysis include The Iliad and The Odyssey by Homer, The Aeneid by Virgil, The Divine Comedy by Dante, and Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained by Milton. Texts will change each time the course is offered. Some semesters will include the study of an epic and later re-workings of the story in literary history to see how different eras translate old forms and stories for their own times. Assignments will include formal and informal writing, and group and individual oral presentations. The small class size will allow for regular informal discussion. (3); Prerequisites: COM 115, HUM 201

LIT 350 
Special Topic in Shakespeare. In this upper division course, students will read a selection of plays by William Shakespeare,the list for which will vary from semester to semester. What will be constant is an examination of structural theories of comedies and/or tragedies, drama as a genre, and thorough literary analyses of the works of Shakespeare through close readings of selected plays and class discussions. The historical and biographical contexts of Shakespeare will be given some consideration. Students should expect to write formal essays and informal responses, and deliver oral presentations about the readings and actively participate in class discussions. (3); Prerequisites: HUM 101, HUM 102, HUM 201, and COM 115.

LIT 355 
Special Topics in the Novel. In this upper division course, students will read a selection of novels, the list for which will vary from semester to semester. What will be constant is an examination of the novel as a genre and thorough literary analyses of the works through close reading of selected world novels and class discussions. The historical and biographical contexts of the novels will be given some consideration. Students should expect to write formal essays and informal responses, and deliver oral presentations about the readings and actively participate in class discussions.  The course may be offered in the traditional 3 hours of class meetings a week or as a hybrid course in which the students meet 1 to 2 hours a week and complete work independently on line. Because the course is a 300 level course, students are required to have completed the Humanities sequence and Principles of Communication or the equivalent thereof. (3); Prerequisites: HUM 201, COM 115

LIT 390 
Independent Study in Literature. This course provides an opportunity for students to participate in a specialized study of a particular facet of literature. Examples may include a genre of literature, time period, or an author's body of work. The student under faculty advisement must submit a proposal to the Department Chair for approval. (1-3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

MATHEMATICS 

MAT 111 
Calculus. This course is a study of algebraic and transcendental relations, with emphasis on applications in the physical sciences. Limits, differentiation, applications of derivatives, related rates, implicit differentiation, integration by substitution and applications of integration will be the main topics covered. (4)

MAT 121 
Calculus I. This course is a study of algebraic and transcendental relations, with emphasis on applications in the physical sciences. Limits, differentiation, applications of derivatives, area under the curve, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,methods of integration, and applications of integration will be the main topics covered. (4)

MAT 145 
Elementary Statistics. This course covers general statistical methods used in the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of statistical data. It includes measures of tendency, dispersion, probability theory, probability distributions, central limit theorems, hypothesis testing on proportions and means, ANOVA, regression analysis and correlation. This course will require statistical applications using computer software. Applications in biology, chemistry,health care and pharmaceutical science will be explored. (3)

MAT 155 
Statistics. This course covers general statistical methods used in the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of statistical data. It includes measures of tendency, dispersion, probability theory, probability distributions, central limit theorems, hypothesis testing on proportions and means, ANOVA, regression analysis and correlation. This course will require statistical applications using computer software. Applications in biology, chemistry, health care and pharmaceutical science will be explored. This course is open only to students in the College’s BS programs. (3)

MAT 211 
Calculus II. This course is a continuation of Calculus I, and is primarily focused on expanding the repertoire of integration techniques to include: powers of trigonometric functions, powers of hyperbolic functions, trigonometric substitutions,rational functions, power series expansions, and improper integrals. In developing these methods, additional calculus concepts are examined, such as: implicit and logarithmic differentiation, L’Hopital’s rule, partial fraction decomposition,sequences, series, and Taylor series. (4); Prerequisite: MAT 121

MAT 235 
Differential Equations. This is a one-term treatment of ordinary differential equations with applications. Topics include classification of, and what is meant by the solution of a differential equation, first-order equations for which explicit solutions are obtainable, explicit methods of solving higher-order linear differential equations, and an introduction to systems of differential equations. Applications of first-order linear differential equations and second-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients will be studied. Applications in the mechanics of motion, population models, chemical reactions and other models will be used to motivate the particular differential equations to be solved.Technology will be an integral part of this class. (3); Prerequisite: MAT 211

MAT 290 
Independent Study/Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to participate in (1) a hands-on research experience or (2) a specialized study project under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. MAT 290 is generally reserved for introductory level experiences and/or smaller scale projects. Students are expected to perform three hours of research or project related work per credit hour earned. (1-3) Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

MAT 380 
Topics in Mathematics or Computation. Topics in Mathematics or Computation typically cover a specific topic in an area of pure mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, or computation and are intended to enhance and expand the selection of offerings from semester to semester and offer specialized courses in emerging fields. The number of credit hours and scope of the course are at the discretion of the faculty member involved and requires approval by the department chair. Repeatable for credit. (1-3); Prerequisites: MAT111 or MAT121, and/or MAT145 or MAT155, and/or additional prerequisites required by the instructor based on the specific topics course being offered.

MAT 411 
Randomized Controlled Trial Methods via CONSORT. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) encompasses various initiatives developed to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The main product of CONSORT is an evidence-based, minimum set of recommendations for reporting RCTs. The course, which will outline and detail many of the CONSORT guidelines regarding methods and results, will benefit those wishing to develop a better understanding of the statistical methods commonly found in the RCT literature as well as discerning important analytical components of pharmaceutical research.  Topics will include discussions of sample size, power, outcomes, summary of results and statistical methods. (1); Prerequisites: PHD 410, MAT 145 or permission of the instructor

MAT 490 
Independent Study/Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to participate in (1) a hands-on research experience or (2) a specialized study project under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. MAT 490 is generally reserved for more advanced research projects of students with prior research experience. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. Faculty members may expect students to present their research in venues either internal or external to the college. Students are expected to perform three hours of research or project related work per credit hour earned. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

MAT 610 G 
Statistical Inference and Modeling. This course provides students with a basic knowledge of biostatistics. It includes methods of experimental design and data analysis used to make inference. Topics covered include confidence intervals,hypothesis testing, multivariable regression, generalized linear models, survival models and analysis of variance. The course will also include a component which introduces the students to statistical programming. (3)

MUSIC

MUS 110 
The World’s Music (formerly LAS 247). This course explores world cultures through their music. The course begins with an overview of some different ways of listening to music and exploring sound as a cultural phenomenon. A primary goal of this course is to help students move beyond some preconceived notions of music in order to open minds and ears to a wide variety of music through a selection of case studies, including, but not limited to, Africa, Asia, Latin America and ethnic immigrant cultural communities in North America. The music of these cultures is explored both as a product and reflection of culture and as a form of artistic expression. (3)

MUS 120 
American Roots Music. This course explores the musical forms, genres and instruments that uniquely evolved on American soil and serve as the basis of American popular music today. More than just a reflection of the diversity of the American experience, students will make connections to important social, political, historical and literary movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. (3) 

PHARMACY ADMINISTRATION  

PAD 330 
ACPE Accreditation: A Student’s Perspective. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) is the official body that evaluates pharmacy schools and gives them the authority to offer a PharmD degree. In this course, students will learn about the ACPE accreditation process and the standards that all pharmacy schools must meet. Select ACPE standards will be chosen for further evaluation. Students will be given access to real data in order to evaluate how ACPHS meets the standard.The course will culminate with a final project where students will work in groups to create a presentation for the College Community. Evaluations and recommendations will be shared with the Dean of the pharmacy school, the Student Government Association and other administrators and departments where appropriate in order to support a culture of assessment and facilitate continuous improvement. (3)

PAD 351 
Introduction to Sales and Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry. This course will provide students with a basic understanding of the pharmaceutical industry, with an emphasis on pharmaceutical sales and marketing. Attention also will be given to areas such as manufacturing, government regulations and research, and their relevance to pharmaceutical sales and marketing. The student will have an understanding of how these areas relate to pharmaceutical industry customers such as hospitals, practitioners, managed care organizations, employers, insurance companies, long-term care and consumers/patients.Emphasis will be placed on the student’s ability to understand the pharmaceutical industry and its customers, and to apply this knowledge in sales and marketing situations. (3); Prerequisites: ECN 217 and PSY 201

PAD 368 
Qualitative Research Methods. The goal of this course is to give students an opportunity to learn how to design, implement and interpret results from qualitative research. Applications of qualitative research will be discussed, providing students with firsthand knowledge of practices in market research and community needs assessment. The methods learned in this course also will be applied to a student-selected group research project, culminating in a presentation. (3)

PAD 372 
Health Insurance for Pharmacists. This course will cover the fundamentals of public and private health insurance law,regulations, and operations in the United States. The overall focus will be on policy challenges relevant to pharmacists,health care managers, policy makers, providers and consumers. It will address policy issues affecting structure, performance,and change in the health care system including: roles and responsibilities of Federal and State agencies and associations;roles of Federal and State legislatures and courts; and roles of providers and advocates. The course will also provide students with a detailed introduction of the following: typical questions that a pharmacist may be asked by customers; health insurance operations and how to help customers with their insurance options at the pharmacy counter; how multiple public and private insurances coordinate payment and basics related to insurance billing; as well as issues related to point–of-sale claims processing for pharmacy services. The course will be comprised of class room instruction and discussion, individual research study projects, and a group research project concerning recent changes to health insurance law, regulations, and operations in Vermont and nationally. (3)

PAD 393 
Introduction to Epidemiology. The purpose of this course is to equip undergraduate and graduate students with the concepts and principles of epidemiology, the basic scientific discipline of public health. As defined in A Dictionary of Epidemiology,Third Edition (Oxford, 1995), epidemiology is the "study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems." Many people would say "disease" in place of "health-related events," but the more general definition makes the point that the methods of epidemiology are applicable to behaviors (e.g., why people smoke, why they use seat belts) and events such as injuries (e.g.hip fractures in the elderly), as well as diseases (e.g., lung cancer, hepatitis B infection). The purpose of this course is to provide the basic framework for how to systematically evaluate an exposure-disease relationship using epidemiologic principles. The course also provides a framework for the basic measures and statistics used in the analysis and interpretation of epidemiologic studies. (3)

PAD 394 
Epidemiology II. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to control health problems. These determinants are often seen in clinical practice and clinicians have a real opportunity to systematically evaluate various exposure-outcome relationships.The purpose of this course is to build on the foundations of epidemiology taught in Epidemiology 1. The emphasis of this course is application & variations on epidemiologic theory. The course is to designed to develop critical thinking skills through the critique of journal articles, classroom discussion, lecture, and group exercises. Students will become aware of how to efficiently design and interpret epidemiologic studies. The course exposes students to common variants of traditional study designs and how these variations affect the validity & precision of exposure-response relationships. Epidemiology 2 has a greater emphasis on confouding, selection and information biases and techniques to minimize these biases using contemporary research methods. Logistic regression and other multivariate analyses are among these methods and this course reviews the basic concepts necessary to interpret these types of analyses. (3)

PAD 433 
Profiles in Leadership. This elective is designed to introduce how leaders inspire and mobilize others to want to make extraordinary things happen in organizations and endeavors.  Five key leadership practices from the text will be presented,along with case studies in which these leadership practices are exemplified by remarkable leaders and characters in recent movies.  This course is designed to acquaint students with these leadership practices and related commitments to leadership through the use of film and other media.  Students will analyze assigned and self-selected case studies to determine how these leadership principles are applied.  Students will also develop a personal code of leadership which they can use in their personal and professional lives. (3); Prerequisite: Doctor of Pharmacy in years P1-P3; BS students in the third and fourth years

PAD 451 
US and Global Healthcare Systems. This course presents a systematic comparative analysis of the evolution, administrative structure, finance, and provision of medical care in selected countries throughout the world. Equity/inequity and the current and looming effects of globalization will be explored. Health and illness are familiar concepts to all of us, but we are used to thinking of them as biological phenomena. This course will expand your understanding of health and illness by looking at them as socio-cultural and socio-economic phenomena. Important differences rooted in culture, ethnicity, social, economic and political factors will be examined to encourage innovative "framing" of U.S. health public policies. This course presents and facilitates the development of an analysis of major health service delivery and management issues from an international perspective. Each country in the world possesses and implements a unique health service delivery system. While there may be many factors, components and issues in common, there are nonetheless many differences. It is important to learn about and analyze other country’s healthcare systems, to learn how they treat similar issues and to discover innovations. Improvement often comes through change and innovations, and this study will not neglect the opportunity to learn from others, especially those middle and lower income countries implementing interesting and innovative reforms.By utilizing a comparable model of exploration, we will gain an understanding of the similarities and differences of industrial countries, third world countries and tribal programs in the US. (3)

PAD 505 
Quality Improvement in Health Care. The purpose of this course is to familiarize the student with the concept and the process of Quality Improvement across the Health Care System. Topics to be discussed in this course include the history of quality,leaders and trends in quality and patient safety, measurement and analysis of variation in different environments, and the guidelines for implementing quality management and the continuous quality improvement processes. Additionally, the students will apply knowledge gained by examining the changes that some US Health Care Systems have made and the impact that those changes have had on improving the quality of Health Care to Americans. (3)

PAD 510 
Pharmacy Jurisprudence – Vermont
Jurisprudence Vermont introduces and reinforces knowledge of the federal and Vermont statutes and administrative rules related to the practice of pharmacy in the state of Vermont. While specific to the state of Vermont, this course can be considered by students intending to seek licensure in states other than Vermont. Students considering licensure in New York are advised to register for PAD511 Pharmacy Jurisprudence-New York. PAD510 is delivered entirely as an online course with scheduled weekly lessons for the student to complete on their own. (3)

PAD 511 
Jurisprudence – New York. This course provides an overview of the history of drug law in the United States with an emphasis on New York state law. The current federal and New York state laws are reviewed in depth with a focus on preparing students to pass the MPJE exam® and to practice pharmacy in the state of New York. (3)

PAD 515 
Pharmacoeconomics and Health Policy. This is the second course in the sequence of Administration-Management-Economics component of the PharmD curriculum. This course will provide students with an introduction to the principles and techniques of pharmacoeconomics and health outcomes evaluation, and to the methodologies used by decisionmakers and stakeholders to draft and implement health policy. It builds on the economic principles presented in health economics (US and Global Health Care Systems) to describe the major components of the current U.S. healthcare system. Building on that foundation, the course introduces the techniques used for evaluation of health care interventions. These methods provide the basis for measuring and assessing the economic and non-economic consequences of healthcare interventions, emphasizing drug therapy, and pharmaceutical services. Examples of some of the economic methods introduced include:cost of illness analysis, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and decision analysis. Non-economic measures discussed include general and disease specific quality-of-life (QOL) assessments and health status measurement. Students will demonstrate the ability to critique published studies which use pharmacoeconomic or health outcomes techniques, assessing the quality of the research and drawing relevant conclusions. (3); Prerequisite: PAD 415

PAD 521
Pharmacy Administration. Effective administration in pharmacy is contingent upon an appreciation for and understanding of the pharmacy and all of its stakeholders.  This course has been designed to focus on the administrative aspects of the practice of pharmacy.  Some of the topics covered include strategic and business planning, operations management including the topics of medication safety and quality management, third party programs, inventory management,patient advocacy and human resources management, as well as leadership and management. The overall purpose of the course is to prepare students to be knowledgeable about and sensitive to the issues concerning pharmacy from the perspectives of all stakeholders (e.g., providers, manufacturers, employees) and to develop the leadership skills necessary for success in practice. (3); Prerequisites: PAD 415, PSC 441

PUBLIC HEALTH

BSS 102
Seminar in Health Professions. This seminar course will provide students with an introduction to many health and science related professions and to the Public Health Program at ACPHS. The goal is to present a wide variety of options to you and give you a forum in which to discuss these career choices and the academic paths that will help you reach your goals. Class will meet for approximately 1 hour each week. Students will be required to attend seminar presentations given during class time and outside of class to enhance their knowledge of various career pathways. Presentation topics include academic research, medical education (MD, DO), physician assistant studies, public health, and health policy and communication. As part of this course, students will prepare a résumé including a detailed outline of their plans to enhance their résumé over their time at ACPHS. Students will also prepare an evaluation of each speaker, keeping a record of specific suggestions made by each speaker as a reference document. As a class, we will also read a book and learn about the idea of public health through that process. (1)

PBH 210 
Introduction to Data. Data is vital to modern health care systems and growing in complexity. Gathering data and organizing it to answer important questions in clinical practice and public health and safety are essential skills for those working in health and health care. Learning to access patient, clinical data and the wide range of data sources (e.g., administrative data, patient reported data, and secondary data) and the common mechanisms to represent clinical data (e.g., ICD). Strategies for optimizing data quality and questions around the ethics, privacy and ownership will also be discussed. The future of technology and its influence on health care data and acquisition will be explored. Beginning to understand existing tools for data analytics. (3) Corequisite: PBH 211

PBH 220 
Environmental Health. This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to and overview of the key areas of environmental health. Using the perspective of the population and community, the course will cover factors associated with the development of environmental health problems. Students will gain an understanding of the interaction of individuals,communities, and economic activity with the environment, the potential impact on health of environmental agents, and specific applications of concepts of environmental health. The course will cover principles derived from core environmental health.The sequence of major topics begins with background material and the tools of the trade (environmental epidemiology,environmental toxicology, environmental policy and regulation). The course then covers specific agents of environmental diseases (e.g., microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation). Finally, applications and domains of environmental health are addressed (e.g., water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, occupational health, and injuries). (3)

PBH 320 
Geography of Health.The Upper East Side. Rural America. Spanish Harlem. The Stroke Belt. Appalachia. China Town. Sunny California. These evocative place names conjure images of wealth and poverty; isolation and community; health and disease.This course explores how and why place matters for health; how we explore the spatial patterns of health and disease; and how the assessment, assurance, and policy actions of public health can address disparities associated with where people grow-up and live their lives. Students will read about the geography of health from bestselling memoirs, essays and journalism,research findings, and textbooks. They will see and hear about the effects of place from movies and documentaries. They will experience how scientists explore health using spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS). And they will encounter public health in action by exploring and documenting the interplay between health and place in the neighborhoods of Albany and its surroundings.(3) Prerequisite: SOC 120 or equivalent

PBH 330 
Global Perspectives in Epidemiology. Global health is of critical importance with the emergence of new diseases such as SARS and H1N1, the potential threat of biological agents such as anthrax, the continued prevalence of diseases such as malaria and dengue, the co-evolution of HIV and multiple drug resistant tuberculosis, the return of once-vanquished diseases like polio,and the export of chronic diseases from industrialized countries to the rest of the world. This course provides an overview of global perspectives in epidemiologic investigations. Students will explore key epidemiologic principles to address these issues and suggest interventions to improve poor health and reduce disease and disability worldwide and provides an overview of global public health concepts as they related to the field of epidemiology. (3); Prerequisites: SOC 301, SOC 120, PAD 393

PBH 340 
Survey Research Methods. This course is intended to familiarize students with the theory and application of survey research methods in data collection. For researchers in social and behavioral sciences and applied professional fields including public health, social surveys are an essential tool. Course material will examine the decisions made by a health researcher in designing and implementing a survey. Coursework will include the hands-on development of each part of the survey process including the creation of a survey instrument and associated research plan for implementation and analysis. Students will also learn about existing survey data and sources that could be relevant for health researchers and will work to analyze and present results from such existing data to answer relevant health questions. (3); Prerequisite: SOC 301

PBH 345 
Concepts in Community Health Practice. This course provides an integrated application based approach to public health concepts and practice by examining the philosophy, purpose, history, organization, functions, tools, activities and results of public health practice at the national, state, and community levels. The course also examines public health occupations and careers. Case studies and a variety of practice-related exercises will serve as a basis for student participation in real world public health problem-solving simulations. The various components of the course aim to stimulate interactions among student and instructors around important problems and issues facing public health. (3); Prerequisites: SOC 120, SOC 101

PBH 360 
Field Epidemiology. This course is designed to provide an overview of the methods used in epidemiologic field investigations.It provides students with a comprehensive review of the basic components of an outbreak investigation, an introduction to public health surveillance, and an overview of specific types of investigations in which a field epidemiologist might become involved, including traceback studies, environmental health assessments, noninfectious health event investigations, contact tracing, and forensic epidemiology. In addition, resources that often come into play in outbreak investigations are presented, such as public health laboratories, the incident command system, and geographic information systems. (3); Prerequisite: SOC 301

PHARMACY 

PHD 451 
Pharmacist-Assisted Tobacco Cessation. This clinical elective provides students with the necessary knowledge and skills to provide comprehensive tobacco cessation counseling to patients who are current or former tobacco users. The course approaches the concept of nicotine addiction from a pharmacologic, physiologic and psychological perspective. Communication and problem-solving skills are developed in the classroom and enhanced via participation in a tobacco cessation clinic. Upon completion of the course, students will demonstrate competency in tobacco cessation encounters, including assessing a person’s readiness to quit, applying tailored strategies to assist patients with quitting and selecting appropriate tobacco cessation aids. (1)

PHD 556 
Updates in Pharmacotherapy. In preparation for APPE, board exams, and practice, this course aims to provide P3 students with opportunities to assess the role of newer drugs therapies in the management of various disease states already taught in the PTPM curriculum. Students will participate in weekly learning activities after attending pharmacist-led lectures and case-based discussions that evaluate newer vs. established drugs therapies. Students will practice identifying and evaluating literature/drug information resources to make evidence-based recommendations. The course will be taught by ACPHS Faculty along with pharmacists who are currently participating in the ACPHS Teaching/Learning Program as part of residency training.
(3); Prerequisites: P1, P2 and P3 Fall Semester

PHILOSOPHY & RELIGION 

PHI 115 
Religions of Asia. This course provides a survey of the major religious traditions of Asia, including Hinduism, Buddhism,Taoism,Confucianism, and Islam. The course emphasizes how each tradition shapes the aims, views, and experiences of the people who participate in them. With each religion we will investigate the following: What are the central texts and practices of each tradition? What are the most important questions that these traditions ask? How have these faiths evolved to the present day? How has each tradition been changed by its encounter with modernity and how has each religion in turn influenced modernity? The course will conclude with a consideration of some of the ways the traditions of Asia have influenced contemporary spirituality and new religions, especially in the West. (3)

PHI 140 
Spiritual Healing (formerly LAS 250). This course will look at several different examples of contemporary spiritual healing practices drawn from many of the religions and spiritual movements from around the world. The primary objectives of the course are: a knowledge and appreciation for various examples of spiritual healing practices and the development of an analytical and tolerant assessment of the theoretical and practical differences and similarities between contemporary spiritual and scientific healing practices. (3)

PHI 145 
Logic and Reasoning. This class focuses on inductive and deductive reasoning. We cover a wide range of topics in critical thinking, such as rational argumentation, fallacies, definition, meaning, truth, and evidence. We discuss how the techniques for critical reading and thinking that we develop in this course are applicable to your work in other classes and to your future careers. (3)

PHI 210 
Comparative Religion (formerly LAS 215). This course will provide a survey of and an engagement with the contemplative or wisdom dimension of four traditions in world religions: CHOIstianity, Buddhism, Native American Religion, and Islam (Sufism).Rather than look at these traditions only from the outside, in a descriptive manner, we will read texts from authors within these traditions who attempt to explain and describe their understanding of the contemplative/meditative dimension of each tradition. From this perspective, fundamental questions will be examined and discussed such as: What is the spiritual psychology of a human being? What is the human heart and what role does it play in human knowing? How does one cultivate a spiritual presence? What is the relationship between the human and the divine? (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

PHI 240 
Islam and Sufism (formerly LAS 238). This course will provide an introduction to Islam and Sufism. The first section will serve as a basic introduction to the Islamic worldview, the Koran and the life of the Prophet Muhammad. The aim will be to arrive at an understanding of the experience of Islam, paying close attention to how Muslims have defined themselves using their own language. Next, we will look more closely at the Islamic sapiential tradition, Sufism and, in particular, the major authors who have defined and informed this important dimension of Islam in terms of both theology and ritual. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

PHI 245 
Introduction to Buddhism and Meditation (formerly LAS 249). This course will provide an introduction to the world view and practice of Buddhism. This will include the study of key teachings of Buddhism, including the Four Noble Truths; the life of the Buddha; and example texts and teachings from a variety of Buddhist authors. We will also examine different schools/approaches to Buddhism, including Zen Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. Additionally, the course will include regular instruction in the practice of meditation and mindfulness techniques. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

PHI 247 
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a practice-focused course in meditation and mindfulness techniques that will allow students to manage and mitigate stress. Through an introduction to contemplative practices, as well as reading, discussion, and written reflection, the students will gain a sense of control over their health and well-being through a method proven to have physical and mental health benefits. (1)

PHI 250 
Religion as the Search for Meaning (formerly LAS 271). Students examine the major religious traditions within the framework of an analysis of humankind’s fundamental need to find meaning in the world by explaining and maintaining proper relationships among the self, society and nature. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

PHI 255 
Religion, Philosophy, and Film (formerly LAS 272). This course will explore examples of contemporary cinema from a wide variety of genres and regions that reflect various dimensions of world religious and philosophical traditions. We will examine and discuss the images, metaphors, and ideas expressed in film as a means to explore and contemplate some of the following questions: What is the sense and purpose of human life? What are the ways that film presents and dramatizes religious or philosophical concepts? What role does religion play in human life or what meaning does it provide? Can film evoke or illuminate religious or spiritual experiences and philosophical insights? Can film be morally, philosophically,spiritually, or religiously educational? Everyone is asked to bring their own questions to bear upon the films and class discussions. Each week we will watch a film in class and students will also be required to participate in ongoing conversations on a discussion board. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

PHI 280 
The Philosophy and Practice of Yoga. It is believed that yoga (Sanskrit, “to yoke” or “to harness”) goes back to the earliest roots of Indian history. This course will provide an introduction to the history, philosophy, and practice of yoga. We will study key texts in the tradition of yoga, such as Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, the Bhagavad-gita, contemporary writings on yoga,as well as research on the health effects of yoga. The course will include weekly practice of yoga, including work with physical postures (asanas), breathwork (pranayama), and meditation techniques. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 101

PHI 350 
Nature and Wellness. This course looks at how human interactions with Nature can promote spiritual, psychological, and physical wellbeing. We will read historical and contemporary texts that explore human-Nature relationships focusing on contemplative approaches that emphasize spiritual, ecological, social, and ethical concerns. We will also look at human-Nature interactions in relation to health outcomes. Through critical reading, discussion, and reflective experiences in Nature, students will consider the importance of Nature to their individual lives, their communities, and to our ecologically and culturally interdependent world. This course will include an experiential component including one or more field trips.(3); Prerequisite: 3rd year standing or permission of the instructor

PHI 370 
Contemplative Studies. This course will provide a survey of and an engagement with the contemplative, meditative, and ritual dimensions of world religious, spiritual, and philosophical traditions. Topics will vary, but may include contemplative practices from both Western and Eastern traditions, including CHOIstianity, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, and Native traditions. We will read texts from authors within these traditions who explain and describe their understanding of contemplative practices – practices that have been historically at the center of these traditions. Through critical reading, discussion,and written reflection, students will be asked to consider the ethical and moral implications and outcomes of contemplative practices. This course will also include an experiential component through which students will be introduced to meditation,ritual, or other contemplative practices and may also include visits to local monasteries, groups, or gathering places of the traditions that we investigate. (3); Prerequisites: HUM 102, HUM 201, COM 115

PHI 380/PSC 380 
Brain, Mind and Meditation. The Science and Practice of Mindfulness and Meditation: Meditation and other contemplative practices are increasingly used to reduce stress, improve health, and treat disease. This interdisciplinary course will discuss the neurobiological and psychological basis of these effects and explore the relationship between the brain and the mind as revealed through the theory and practice of meditation. The course will consist of three integrated components. The first component will consider the scientific evidence demonstrating that meditation produces lasting changes in brain anatomy and function and review accumulating research data showing that meditation produces therapeutic effects in chronic pain,depression, drug addiction, and other psychiatric and physiologic disorders. The second component will explore the theory and philosophy behind meditative practices and contemplative techniques drawing from Buddhist and other traditions, used,traditionally, by religious practitioners and, in contemporary society, to reduce stress and improve health and well-being.In the third component of the course, students will be introduced to meditation and other contemplative methods so they can explore, personally, the effects of meditation on the mind. The course will be taught by specialists in neuroscience,religious studies, and mindfulness-based meditation. (3)

PHARMACY 

PHM 318 
Foundations of Pharmacy. This course provides dynamic introduction to the profession of pharmacy, formally introduces the concept of professionalism, and serves to initiate the professionalization of all students enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy degree program.Coursework is a combination of pre-class readings, live or online lectures with engagement activities, and post-class assignments designed to expose students to a comprehensive introduction to Pharmacy Practice and pharmacy career exploration.Students will write summaries and reflections of topics covered over the course of the semester, engage in peer-peer interaction through online discussion boards, and participate in in-class gamification. An introduction to the Top 100 drugs is included in this course, as prerequisite preparation for upcoming practice experiences.This course is a prerequisite for the Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPEs).

PHM 324 
Pharmaceutical Industry and the Pharmacist’s Role. This course will provide an overview of the pharmaceutical industry covering topics of: research, development, medical, regulatory, marketing, sales, distribution, legal, ethics and compliance.Headquarters and field based perspectives will be shared. The course will provide the student with an overview of the various types of pharmacy careers available within the pharmaceutical industry in each of the listed topics . The course will be team taught by pharmaceutical industry experts. (3); Prerequisite: Current P1, P2 or P3 student PHM 329 Self Care/OTC. This course will guide the student through an interactive approach to self-care. An appreciation of the pharmacist's role in self-care will be taught with an emphasis on the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) Pharmacists' Patient Care Process and self-care therapy selection. Treatment options that will be discussed will range from non-drug therapy to non-prescription medications and devices to herbal products and dietary supplements. (3); Prerequisite:Current Doctor of Pharmacy student

PHM 350, 450, 550 
Applied Methods in Epidemiologic Research. Students will develop problem-solving skills and enhance their knowledge of contemporary methods in clinical epidemiologic research through application. Students will participate in a number of activities that are both instructional and applied. Activities include introduction to basic topics in clinical epidemiologic research (measures of disease frequency/association, study design and handling bias), data collection, database management,data analysis, scientific writing and preparing abstracts/posters for presentation at conferences and manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed medical journals. P1 and P2 students will participate in developing a research question/hypothesis, identifying appropriate study designs to test a hypothesis, protocol development and data collection. P2 students will continue the activities from the preceding year. P2 students will also create/manage an electronic database,compute basic measures of disease frequency, and perform quality checks on variables that could confound or bias the measure of association. P3 students will serve as project managers and assist in mentoring P1 and P2 students with data collection and database management. P3 students will also participate in data analysis and preparing an abstract/poster for presentation at a national meeting. The course does not have any underlying prerequisite coursework. However, interested students must contact the course coordinator expressing their intentions and undergo a brief interview. Selected students will be invited by faculty to participate in this course which can range from 1 to 6 credits.

PHM 354 
Pharmacy Leadership and Advocacy. Pharmacy as a profession is at a turning point. We are moving towards an emphasis on direct patient care activities and reimbursement for our cognitive services. For the profession to continue to move forward effective leaders are needed to provide mentorship to the newly emerging members of the profession and to advocate for the profession. This elective course is designed to familiarize students with effective leadership skills, the legislative process, and converging this knowledge to make the transition from leadership to advocacy. Students will be involved in interactive discussions, listen to guest lecturers such as key legislators and pharmacy leaders/advocates, and hold debates on current pharmacy practice issues. Becoming a successful advocate can open doors for pharmacists to use their extensive knowledge to ensure effective care is being provided to their patients.(3); Prerequisites: Current P1, P2 or P3 student

PHM 360 
Serving the Underserved I. Serving the Underserved is a 1 credit course offered to P1-P3 students with no prerequisites. The course is intended to assist students in overcoming barriers to healthcare on behalf of their patients. Through the use of interactive sessions and patient examples, students should be able to refer patients to appropriate resources or to use the resource themselves. The class will also include activities that will highlight biases in providing care to patients. The overall objective is to provide a structure for the student to be an advocate for patients and their care. The course will be a stand-alone course. It will not overlap substantially with existing courses, including the US and Global Health Care Systems course. The elective will supplement but not reiterate existing courses. (1)

PHM 361. 
Serving the Underserved II. Serving the Underserved II is a 2 credit course offered to P1-P3 students that builds off of the Serving the Underserved I course. This course is intended to increase the depth of knowledge of the materials covered in Serving the Undeserved I course, including insurances and overcoming patient barriers. It will also introduce new topics,such as health literacy. Both courses take a hands-on, interactive approach. Hopefully, the student will complete the course with the feeling that he or she has the ability to assist patients from a variety of backgrounds and with many different barriers to care. (2); Prerequisite: PHM 360

PHM 429 
Advanced OTC. The Advanced OTC course will guide the student pharmacist through an interactive approach to over the counter medications. Students will have the opportunity to take a more in depth look into specific topics while addressing topics not currently covered in the required course: The Pharmacist Role in Self Care. The design of this course is geared towards student pharmacists looking to pursue a career in community pharmacy. (3); Prerequisite: PHM 329

PHM 435 
Nephrology Patient Care. This course introduces the delivery of patient-oriented pharmaceutical care in nephrology. Students gain an understanding of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) public health epidemic and will be able to identify key roles for pharmacists in managing CKD. Students will develop skills in identifying medication-related problems via patient case discussions that simulate real patient-care issues in nephrology. Complications of CKD, healthcare issues, and healthcare dilemmas will be introduced via group discussion and journal club. (3); Prerequisite: Doctor of Pharmacy P1 student

PHM 436                                                                                                                                                                               Drug interactions: Description: This professional elective will introduce students to the mechanisms of drug interactions, the tools required to interpret the drug interaction literature and will provide a series of lectures that stress the more common drug interactions observed when treating specific disease states. The literature interpretation skills and drug interaction knowledge base acquired from this course will help students identify drug interactions, develop a patient specific recommendation to manage a drug interaction and answer drug information questions: important clinical skills for progressing through experiential education and into practice.  Prerequisites: PharmD Program P1 Year. Professional Elective for the Pharmacy Program.

PHM 440 
Pediatric Pharmacy Practice. Students enrolled in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice will receive an overview of concepts and common pharmacotherapeutic issues related to the practice of pharmacy in the infant and child patient, and develop a level of understanding appropriate for that of a general pharmacist practitioner. The infant and child patient is often one that poses unique challenges to the pharmacist owing to rapid and substantive changes in physiology, behavior, communication, and understanding. These changes often necessitate flexibility and resourcefulness on the part of the pharmacist to assess his or her patient, and arrive at sound drug therapy decisions that are specific for the infant or child. Aside from the uniqueness of the infant or child patient, these decisions are often complicated by a lack of adequate evidence-based medicine,difficulty in communications with the parent or caregiver, and societal misunderstandings and beliefs regarding the healthcare of children. The course objectives will be met by way of a student-centered approach utilizing a mixture of online and in-class lessons, and problem- and team-based learning. (3); Prerequisite: current P2 or P3 pharmacy student

PHM 472 
Women’s Health Seminar. Women's Health Seminar will cover a broad range of topics relevant through the lifespan of women. This class will also foster interprofessional relationships by featuring guest lecturers with expertise in these topics. The focus in this class is to increase awareness and understanding of issues that women face and developing sensitivity to these issues. Participants in this class will also examine ways to further the profession in this field. Students will be expected to actively engage speakers through questions and discussion. Students will also be expected to do one presentation and several reflective and informative papers throughout the semester. (2)

PHM 517 
Psychopharmacology & Psychopathology in the Media.  Psychopharmacology & Psychopathology in Film & Media is a 3-credit elective course available to PharmD students enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program. This course focuses on the portrayal of psychiatric illness and their corresponding treatments in films and media. Students enrolled in the course will receive an overview of major psychiatric/neurologic illness and their portrayal within film and media. Representations of psychopathological states in media will be examined within the context of contemporary social issues such as stigma and discrimination with additional emphasis placed on the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of the various disorders. The films accuracy in portraying the disease state, significance and social influence of the film, public perception of mental illness,and advanced concepts in treating psychiatric disorders will also be discussed in the course.

PHM 525 
Advanced Nephrology. This course introduces topics that will enable students to have an in‐depth understanding of contemporary issues in nephrology. It will enable them to participate in a nephrology APPE in an advanced and effective manner and will engender interest in a nephrology residency or fellowship. Students will participate in small group discussions on topical aspects of clinical nephrology, lead and participate in journal clubs with faculty, and be responsible as near‐peer instructors for components of the Nephrology Patient Care elective. The Advanced Nephrology elective will be run for one 2‐hour session each week to coincide with the Nephrology Patient Care elective. (2); Prerequisites: PSL 302, PHM 329,PTP 525 and B or better OR completion of clinical and translational research elective OR independent research elective in nephrology.

PHM 535 
Cancer Screening/Prevention/Early Detection. This course will review basic concepts of cancer epidemiology, carcinogenesis,and principles of cancer screening and prevention through evaluation of the medical literature and clinical practice guidelines from the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), ACS (American Cancer Society), ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology), the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), and other relevant professional societies.The screening and prevention literature for breast, cervical, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers will be discussed in detail, with emphasis on the medical literature that supports/refutes the recommendations and the controversies and differences amongst the available guidelines. Other contemporary issues in cancer screening and prevention will be selected by the instructor based on current events and may include critical evaluation of the literature regarding traditional exposure-disease relationships/risk factors for cancer such as genetics, pesticides, radiation, radon, cell phones, red meat,alcohol, tobacco, obesity, sugar, sedentary lifestyle, shift work, etc. as well as any new updates in screening or early detection. This course is offered 50% online and 50% live-in-class; foundational knowledge will be presented in recorded lectures online and live sessions are held to explore controversies and evaluation of the literature through journal clubs, debates, and case-based discussion. Students will also have the opportunity to choose a cancer screening/prevention/early detection topic of their choice and present a summary of primary literature that they find on the topic (this may be as a written paper or as a brief presentation depending on course enrollment). Evaluation is heavily weighted on active participation during the live class sessions. (3); Prerequisite: Current P1-P3; 4th year BS student eligible with instructor approval after Doctor of Pharmacy Program registration

PHM 547 
Critical Care Medicine. Critical Care Medicine will cover topics ranging from those occurring in an Emergency Department that will result in a patient transfer to an Intensive Care Unit as well as health care issues that require a direct transfer and management in an intensive care unit. We will focus on gaining an understanding of life threatening issues and exploring the Pharmacists role as part of a healtcare team in gaining control over life threatening situations that occur daily in healthcare. Pharmacotherapeutic interventions in critically ill patients care will be emphasized. We will be using case based assessments for evaluation throughout the course. Students will be expeceted to participate in an active teaching and learning environment along with participation in an individual or group research exercise where they will develop a treatment protocol for use in a critical care situation. The use of patient cases and SOAP notes will be subject to both oral and written presentation as communication as a whole is a key component to practice in this fast paced environment. (3)

PHM 555. 
Geriatric Pharmacotherapy. Geriatric Pharmacotheraphy is designed to introduce students to the concepts of geriatric care and build upon knowledge from the pharmacotherapy sequence with a focus on older adult patients. The course will review physiologic changes and altered presentation of the elderly patient, geriatric syndromes, and pharmacotherapy in older adults. The course will utilize didactic lectures, case-based education, and therapeutic debates. Lessons taught in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy will follow related lessons in the required P2 and P3 PTPM course which will reinforce the pharmacologic and pharmacotherapeutic knowledge and principles. (3); Corequisite: Enrollment in required P3 PharmD curriculum or permission of the instructor

PHM 572 
Topics in Family Medicine. Topics in Family Medicine is a 3 credit hour elective course offered to students in their P3 year that covers a wide range of both inpatient and outpatient family medicine topics including anticoagulation, contraception, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, polypharmacy, medication therapy management, and more. The content will be delivered with both didactic lectures and active learning activities. The course is intended to serve as a "bridge" between students' therapeutic modules and experiential rotations. Course activities and assignments will mimic those that students will encounter on rotation, and will include patient case work-ups, formal case presentations, "morning report" presentations, and written drug information responses. Course activities and assignments will allow students to develop their critical thinking,writing, literature evaluation, and public speaking skills. (3)

PHM 576 
Concepts in Community Oncology. Concepts in Community Oncology is a 3-credit hybrid (online/live) elective course designed to develop oral and written communication skills in the student pharmacist that are necessary to deliver effective patient-centered pharmaceutical care to the ambulatory oncology patient. Communicating through writing and public speaking and patient education are skills necessary to interact with both patients and other healthcare providers in direct patient care. Recent trends and newer oral therapies in oncology are geared toward managing patients in an ambulatory setting, enhancing patient convenience. In this ambulatory setting where chemotherapeutic patient self-administration, complicated self-care of managing adverse drug events, and interpretation of cancer literature by the media prevail, the pharmacist plays a key role as an informational resource and educator. Classroom activities will consist of case discussion, and patient counseling exercises based on example real-life patient examples, critique of cancer literature reported in the media, and brief student presentations on new oncology agents and written responses to example patient drug information questions. The online,self-paced portion of the course will consist of weekly pre-recorded lectures and readings to provide the adequate evidence-based information or guidelines on the therapies, cancers, adverse effects,and interview/counseling skills needed for students to successfully participate in the active learning in-class exercises. Students will be exposed to career opportunities in the community and ambulatory oncology by area oncology pharmacists participating in the course, and exposed to the cancer community by a minimum of one field trip to a cancer symptom night support group. Achievement of course objectives will be assessed by completion of the listed activities, active student participation and professional behaviors. The course instructor is located on the Vermont campus and distance technology will be used to transmit to the NY campus. (3)

PHM 580 
APhA MTM Certificate. The American Pharmacists Association national certificate program entitled Delivering Medication Therapy Management Services is an active learning seminar in which participants practice a variety of communication techniques to elicit a patient's medication experience and identify medication-related problems, using cases based on the real-life experiences of MTM providers. Participants will gain experience interviewing patients, identifying and prioritizing medication-related problems, developing and implementing interventions, and documenting activities. Participants explore various business models and billing strategies and discuss plans for implementation. Pre-seminar self-study modules, a case study and hands-on patient interview prepare participants for the live session. After completion of 5 APPE cases, students receive their APhA Certificate. There is a separate fee associated with this course that will be added to the tuition bill.(1); Prerequisites: Doctor of Pharmacy Program P1 and P2 year and Fall of P3 year.

PHM 911 
Orientation to Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. This course provides students with preparation to select and satisfactorily complete their advanced pharmacy practice experiences. Students will meet experiential education personnel and will prepare a personal biosketch, resume, and placement profile. Students will review the APPE Rotation Manual, which includes the calendar; required and elective module requirements; rotation assignment procedure; goals and objectives for advanced pharmacy practice experiences; procedures for assignment to extramural and special arrangement rotations; student guidelines; midpoint and final evaluation procedures; academic regulations; electronic resources on the Web site and portfolios. Students will learn about different practice environments, including community; institutional; specialty practices in ambulatory care or inpatient settings, managed care and administration, that they may consider as potential APPE options. (0)

PHYSICS

PHY 145 
Physics of Sound/Music. This course is a one-semester introductory level course that discusses fundamental scientific principles of waves, sound, and music. The concepts of energy, harmonic oscillation, resonance, harmonic analysis,interference, diffraction, traveling waves and standing waves are treated quantitatively. Relationship of physical characteristics of sound waves to loudness, pitch, and timbre is discussed. The course requires proficiency in algebra(intermediate level) and trigonometry (elementary level) and credit for a physics course at a high school level or above. (3)

PHY 201/212 
College Physics I. This course is the first part of a two-semester physics sequence. Basic principles underlying physical phenomena will be studied. These principles form a foundation of our understanding of chemistry, biology and pharmaceutical sciences. Emphasis will be on solving qualitative and quantitative problems using a variety of mathematical methods. The topics will include one- and two-dimensional kinematics; Newtonian dynamics; work and energy; linear momentum; physics of fluids and solids; oscillations and waves; and applied nuclear physics. The laboratory portion of the course complements its theoretical component and will in particular familiarize students with modern experimental techniques and skills including computerized data collection. PharmD students register for PHY 212, BS students register for PHY 201. (4); Prerequisite: MAT 121. Lecture and Laboratory

PHY 202/222 
College Physics II. This course is the second part of a two-semester physics sequence and a continuation of Physics I. Basic principles underlying physical phenomena will be studied. These principles form a foundation of our understanding of chemistry, biology and pharmaceutical sciences. Emphasis will be on solving qualitative and quantitative problems using a variety of mathematical methods. The topics will include foundations of thermodynamics and kinetic theory; electricity and magnetism; electromagnetic waves and elements of physical and geometrical optics. The laboratory portion of the course complements its theoretical component and will, in particular, familiarize students with modern experimental techniques and skills including computerized data collection. PharmD students register for PHY 222, BS students register for PHY 202. (4); Prerequisite: PHY 201/212; Lecture and Laboratory

PHY 245 
Physics for Life Sciences. This course is a one-semester algebra-trigonometry-based introductory physics course. Fundamental principles underlying physical phenomena will be studied. These principles form a foundation of our understanding of chemistry, biology and pharmaceutical sciences. Emphasis will be on solving qualitative and quantitative problems using a variety of basic mathematical methods. The topics will include kinematic description of motion; Newtonian dynamics; the concepts of work and energy; energy conservation law; mechanics of fluids; introduction to nuclear physics; heat and temperature, charges and Coulomb’s Law; introduction to electric circuits; and geometrical and physical optics. The laboratory portion of the course complements its theoretical component and, in particular, will familiarize students with modern experimental techniques and skills including computerized data collection. (4); Prerequisite: MAT 111; Lecture and Laboratory

PHY 316 
Physics in Nuclear Medicine and Pharmacy. Nuclear medicine uses the nuclear properties of matter for medical purposes. As a part of the diagnostic procedure, radionuclides (radiopharmaceuticals) are administered and the radiation emitted is used to form images. These images reflect biological processes that take place at the cellular and subcellular level. Nuclear pharmacy is a specialty area of pharmacy practice dedicated to the compounding and dispensing of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine procedures. This course is a one-semester introductory level course that discusses fundamental principles underlying physical phenomena related to the fields of nuclear medicine and nuclear pharmacy. The topics will include basic atomic and nuclear physics, radioactivity and its decay, methodology of radiopharmaceutical production and instrumentation used for production of radionuclides, radiation detectors, basic ideas of positron emission tomography (PET), radiation dosimetry, radiation protection and safety and fundamentals of health physics. We will discuss examples of clinical applications of nuclear medicine/pharmacy for different systems and diseases. The course emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and students are expected to become proficient at manipulating the quantities and units used in the radiation sciences. The course will include field trips to local nuclear pharmacy facilities and guest lectures given by local nuclear pharmacists. (3); Prerequisite: PHY 202/222

PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

PSC 110 
Scientific Reasoning and Analysis I - The Educated Scientist. The courses (PSC110, PSC111 and PSC112) that make up the SRA sequence focus on historical and contemporary topics in science. These courses will focus on the development of communication and critical thinking skills in addition to their scientific content. SRA1 is focused on the use of data to support hypotheses by evaluating both historical and appropriate and inappropriate uses of data. (2)

PSC 111 
Scientific Reasoning and Analysis II - The Ethical Scientist. The courses (PSC110, PSC111 and PSC112) that make up the SRA sequence focus on historical and contemporary topics in science. These courses will focus on the development of communication and critical thinking skills in addition to their scientific content. SRA 2 is focused on clinical implications of science and medicine with an underlying theme of exploring historical and contemporary medical breakthroughs as well as contemporary issues in the US healthcare system. (2)

PSC 112 
Scientific Reasoning and Analysis III - The Scientist in Society. The courses (PSC110, PSC111 and PSC112) that make up the SRA sequence focus on historical and contemporary topics in science. These courses will focus on the development of communication and critical thinking skills in addition to their scientific content. SRA 3 is focused on using previously collected data to produce a testable hypothesis. Presentation of scientific data and building support for hypothesis and career related uses for scientific degrees. (2)

PSC 210 
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Experience. This elective course will allow students to pursue a laboratory-based research. The student and research mentor will work together to define a series of experiments that will achieve the student’s individual goals. This course may serve as an initial experience for a student to determine their level of aptitude and interest in pursuing research or, for more senior students, it will support a more detailed investigation of a defined hypothesis. The student will learn the necessary techniques, conduct experiments and analyze data under the guidance of the research mentor. Work on the project may or not be continued in subsequent offerings of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Experience or, for BSPS students, through enrollment in the Thesis Option of the BSPS program. Students are expected to be actively involved in research or other laboratory work for a minimum of 125 hours for three credit hours of the course (42 hours/credit) and not more than 150 hours over the semester (50 hours/credit). Final grades will be assigned by the course coordinator. (1-6); Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and course coordinator

PSC 231 
Real World Health Care. This course will discuss the role of healthcare systems in improving human health and compare the US healthcare system to that of various other healthcare systems of the world. Topics will include disease prevention vs.treatment, comparison of the US healthcare system to those of other developed countries and the current status of health care in developing countries. Discussions will also focus on the availability of healthcare for people of varying economic and social classes, ethnicity, and with different diseases/ailments. Class time will be divided between online discussions,student based presentations and seminar style discussions. The course is designed to be relevant to students who are considering a career in medicine. (3).

PSC 261 
Topics in Pathophysiology and Medicine. Students will build on their knowledge of various topics in pathophysiology and medicine by reading, discussing, analyzing and interpreting data from the scientific literature. Students are expected to be active participants in presenting, discussing, critiquing and interpreting the data throughout the semester. This course will begin with discussions and reading focused on background information and build to student led evaluation of primary journal articles. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 111 and 121

PSC 281 
Neuroscience I. Neuroscience I will provide an introduction to the cellular structure, anatomical organization, physiological function and pathophysiology of the central nervous system. It will cover brain anatomy, discuss sensory systems and sensory perception, review motor function and its control and show how the structure and neuronal ‘wiring diagram’ of the brain mediate specific brain functions. The course will also discuss neurophysiology and electrochemical information processing in the brain. Lastly, the course will focus on pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying neurologic diseases, including brain imaging analyses and case studies, and discuss treatment modalities. Neuroscience I is a basic neuroscience course focused primarily on students with a strong interest in neuroscience and in pursuing research and/or more advanced courses in neuroscience. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 102/121

PSC 282 
Neuroscience I Laboratory. Neuroscience I Laboratory will provide a hands-on opportunity to study the brain. Students will investigate the cellular and anatomical substrates of brain function and dysfunction through microscopy, brain dissection and by using interactive models. The laboratory syllabus will be correlated with the lecture sequence for Neuroscience I. (1); Prerequisite: BIO 102/ 121

PSC 283 
Neuroscience II: Applications. Neuroscience II explores the diversity of research and clinical applications in the field of Neuroscience. From pharmacotherapy, to the underlying mechanisms associated with nervous system vulnerability and pathogenesis. This diversity is highlighted by focused modules in neurodevelopment, learning and memory, the nature of neuroimmune interactions as effectors of neurological disorders and disease outcomes, genetic determinants of behavior and the deleterious consequences of environmental chemical exposures. The modules are designed to appeal to both the novice and those with prior exposure to Neuroscience. The different approaches used in diagnosis and understanding physical impairment are stressed as essential components of devising effective therapy and future research directions. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 102 or BIO 121 and CHE 102 or CHE 121

PSC 311 
Biochemistry. Biochemistry provides an introduction to important biomolecules and the complex structures and cellular pathways in which these molecules are involved.  The first section of the course focuses on proteins with emphasis on enzyme structure and function, kinetics, and reaction mechanisms. Following an examination of simple and complex carbohydrates and lipids, the remainder of the course focuses on metabolic pathways that are responsible for cellular ATP production(glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport), fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, cholesterol biosynthesis, and pentose phosphate metabolism.  The metabolic intermediates and signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of key rate limiting enzymes for each pathway provide a focus for understanding how this regulation facilitates functional integration of these metabolic pathways in a number of different cell types. (3); Prerequisite: CHE 221

PSC 312 
Molecular Biology. An analysis of the regulatory pathways controlling cell replication, gene expression, and protein synthesis with a central focus of understanding how such knowledge is foundational to therapeutic application and development. Cancer cells, retroviruses, and bacteria serve as thematic models to demonstrate how the principles embodied in these studies translate into functional applications. Problem solving and data analysis play a central role in reinforcing didactic material and fostering student intellectual development. In addition to canonical topics, specialized subjects such as dideoxynucleotide therapeutics, RNAi, viral vectors in gene therapy, stem cells, and cloning are discussed to illustrate both the practical—and potential—applications of this ever-evolving field. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 311

PSC 315 
Immunology. This course is devoted to the study of host defense and the immune system. It examines the cells and organs of the system. It also explores the complex mechanism of cell-cell cooperation necessary to produce immune responses. The role of antibodies, T cells and macrophages in host defense and diseases are thoroughly explored. The role of the immune system in hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and transplantation is carefully examines. In addition, methods for modifying immune responses through drugs and vaccines are discussed. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 111, BIO 121 and PSC 311 or concurrent enrollment in PSC 311, PSC 316 Advanced Immunology. This course will further explore concepts introduced in Immunology that did not receive extensive discussion in the basic course. Topics of specific interest to the students in the class will be covered and may include: the molecular biology of generation of diversity of antibodies, immunogenetics of disease states and transplantation,modification of immune responses including tolerance induction and immunosuppressive drugs and psychoneuroimmunology with a discussion of the endocrine-neuro-immune axis. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 315 or permission of the instructor

PSC 317 
Advanced Genetics. With an emphasis on human populations, this course serves to introduce students to the many specialized branches of the science of genetics. Although classic subjects including Mendelian genetics, pedigree analyses, and population genetics are covered, diverse topics—ranging from chromosome evolution to developmental programs to eugenics—serve to highlight the diversity inherent in the field. Although based on core lecture series, supplemental readings from authors such as Stephen Jay Gould, problem sets, and integrated recitations facilitate academic growth in several essential areas. A centerpiece of the genetics course involves the completion of a semester-long project that challenges students to identify a gene based on a DNA sequence fragment, the role this gene plays in inherited disorders, and the current state of research into this genetic disease. This project culminates in a review-style paper, which, in addition to facilitating writing skills, affords students the opportunity to develop a level of expertise and understanding for the impact that congenital disorders have on individuals—and the drive towards developing treatments. (3); Prerequisite: BIO 121

PSC 321 
Physiology/Pathophysiology I. This course sequence will focus on normal physiological principles of homeostatic regulation of the human body. Important anatomical structures, pathologies and disease states will be presented to support underlying physiological regulation. Physiology/Pathophysiology I will include in-depth discussions of the physiology and pathophysiology of cell structure, electrophysiology, the nervous systems and the cardiovascular system. (4); Prerequisites: BIO 102/121 PSC 322 Physiology/Pathophysiology II. This course sequence will focus on normal physiological principles of homeostatic regulation of the human body. Important anatomical structures, pathologies and disease states will be presented to support underlying physiological regulation. Physiology/Pathophysiology II will include in-depth discussions covering physiology and pathophysiology of the respiratory system, renal system, endocrine systems and gastrointestinal/hepatic systems. (4); Prerequisites: BIO 102/121

PSC 330 
Enthnopharmacology. Ethnopharmacology can be defined as, the interdisciplinary investigation of biologically active substances found in nature and used by humans. As such, ethnopharmacology is at the interface between medicine and culture,between pharmacology and anthropology. The field incorporates elements of classical botany, natural products chemistry,pharmacology, anthropology and even psychology and comparative religion. Although, technically, the term could apply to the study of drugs by modern, Western society, most work in the field concerns the use of natural products by indigenous, pre-modern cultures or in traditional medical practices. Ethnopharmacology has been the source of many new drugs used in Western medicine and continues to be an important target for drug development. This course will provide an overview of the broad field of ethnopharmacology, including drug development from natural products, and will focus on the use of psychoactive plants by diverse cultures. The course will be largely discussion based and class discussions will rely on student knowledge from assigned readings. Lectures will be kept to a minimum. The class will review papers, analyze data and discuss controversial elements of ethnopharmacology, drug development, intellectual property and cross-cultural differences in the use of natural products. Assessment will be based on two relatively brief research reports, class presentations,participation in class discussions and two essay type examinations. Students will be encouraged to pursue topics of their own interest. (3)

PSC 331 
Pharmaceutical Sciences Problem Solving Workshop I. The Pharmaceutical Sciences Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term (as well as previously mastered material) in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to use critical thinking skills, effectively communicate through speaking and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peers under the direction of appropriat faculty members. (1)(identical to IPS 301)

PSC 332 
Pharmaceutical Sciences Problem Solving Workshop II. The Pharmaceutical Sciences Problem Solving Workshops will integrate information from the courses offered during that term (as well as previously mastered material) in a way that assists students in mastering course material in an active learning environment and in a manner that helps to develop problem solving skills. In addition, these workshops are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries to foster deeper understanding of the material by the student. Students will be expected to use critical thinking skills, effectively communicate through speaking and function effectively in small group sessions. The workshops will be led by near-peers under the direction of appropriate faculty members. (1)

PSC 334 
Methodologies for Research and Evaluation of Medicinal Plants. The use of medicinal plants (herbals, botanicals) to treat human diseases comes from ancient times and, with the development of new technologies, a number of new drugs have been discovered. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the population of developing countries rely on medicinal plants and other traditional medicines and, in the US, approximately 55% of patients use medicinal plants or other complementary medicines to alleviate health care problems. This course will provide a broad perspective on the current state of knowledge of medicinal plants, discuss the use of medicinal plants by indigenous cultures and review the medicinal use of specific plants in the US and developing countries. A major focus of the course will be on the discovery of new medicinal plants through bioprospecting and on the methods used to investigate the active constituents of medicinal plants, to analyze specific plant chemicals and to validate their biological and/or biomedical properties. The course will focus predominantly on medicinal plants used in the upper and lower Amazon regions of Peru. Students may also have the opportunity to conduct field work in the Amazon rainforest and to participate in research on medicinal plants at the Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva in Tingo Maria, Peru, and/or in ACPHS research laboratories as a separate course offered during the summer semesters. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 102/121

PSC 335 
Drugs of Abuse: This course provides a basic introduction to the neuropharmacology of licit and illicit psychoactive drugs.It will review the major classes of licit and illicit drugs, including alcohol, opiates (morphine, oxycodone),psychostimulants (caffeine, cocaine, amphetamine, khat), marijuana, hallucinogens (psilocybin,  mescaline), MDMA, dissociative anesthetics (ketamine, PCP) and hypnotics (benzodiazepines). The course will focus on the acute and long-term pharmacological, psychological, behavioral and adverse effects produced by these drugs and explore the cultural, historical and religious context for their use. The neural mechanisms responsible for drug addiction will also be reviewed and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for addiction will be discussed. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 321.

PSC 341 
Pharmaceutics I. The Pharmaceutics course sequence focuses on the principles of drug delivery and product design.Pharmaceutics I introduces the physical, chemical and mathematical principles, theories, terminology, calculations and methodologies of physical pharmacy, dosage forms and drug delivery systems. The topics include properties of solutions,solution dosage forms, equilibrium and kinetics in solutions, properties of dispersions, dispersion dosage forms,preformulation, quality standards, new drug development and the drug approval process.  (3); Prerequisites: BIO 111, BIO 121,CHE 121, CHE 221, PSC 311, MAT 111, PHY 222 or Permission of the instructor

PSC 342 
Pharmaceutics II.  The Pharmaceutics course sequence focuses on the principles of drug delivery and produce design.Pharmaceutics II covers the foundations of physical pharmacy and biopharmaceutics. The physical, chemical, mathematical and biological principles are applied to the design of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Commonly used pharmaceutical ingredients and manufacture methods are introduced. Topics include principles of biopharmaceutics, topical and transdermal drug delivery, solid dosage forms and oral drug delivery systems, sterile products, nasal and pulmonary drug delivery,specialty products, advanced drug delivery systems and novel drug delivery strategies.(3); Prerequisite: PSC 341 or Permission of the instructor

PSC 351 
Alternative and Complementary Medicine. This course will examine complementary and integrative medicine practiced in the United States. The course will examine the underlying cultural assumptions and world views of allopathic and complementary medical systems and introduce students to both mechanistic and holistic belief frameworks. Systems such as homeopathy,chiropractic, osteopathy and Western herbalism will be discussed, as well as techniques or approaches including touch therapies, aromatherapy and light therapy. Systems that stress integration of mechanistic with personalistic beliefs will also be discussed, including naturopathic, traditional Chinese medicine and ayurvedic practices. The role of the mind in wellness and the concept of mind/body medicine will be integrated throughout the course. In presentations, students will be required to investigate systems or techniques within the integrative medical spectrum which interest them. (3); Prerequisites: BIO 111 and 121

PSC 369 
Molecular Foundations of Drug Action I. This course explores the fundamental principles that define the relationship between chemical structure and the biological action of drug molecules.  A major focus of the course is the application of these chemical principles to biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and the molecular mechanisms of pharmacological activity.The relationships between drug structure, therapeutic properties, and physicochemical characteristics will be discussed. Structure activity relationships (SAR), structure-property relationships (SPR) and ADME (absorption, distribution,metabolism, and excretion) will be explored through case studies.(3); Prerequisites: CHE211; CHE 221; PSC 311

PSC 410 
BSPS Thesis I. This course is required for all BSPS students registered for the Thesis Option. Participation in Thesis I requires completing an accepted application to the BSPS Thesis Option including the approval of the Director of the BSPS Program and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Department Chair. Students will work with an identified faculty mentor to develop a thesis proposal which will provide appropriate background, hypothesis, specific aims and methods for the thesis work to be conducted as part of BSPS Thesis Research I. The written thesis proposal will be in the format of an NIH grant application. The thesis proposal must be approved by the faculty mentor. Student will prepare and present a seminar of their thesis proposal. This course can be taken prior to or concurrently with BSPS Thesis Research I. The faculty mentor will assign the BSPS Thesis I grade. (3)

PSC 411 
BSPS Thesis II. This course is required for all BSPS students registered for the Thesis Option. This course must be taken concurrently with BSPS Thesis Research II and students must have completed BSPS Thesis I and BSPS Thesis Research I. Students will be responsible for writing a senior thesis based on the research data generated in Thesis Research I and II as outlined in the thesis proposal produced in Thesis I.  In addition, students will prepare a seminar that describes the research project, results obtained and the conclusions that can be drawn from the research. The seminar will be presented to the ACPHS community. The written thesis will be submitted to the thesis mentor prior to the seminar presentation and revised according to the thesis mentor’s critique. If the seminar and the revised thesis are found to be acceptable by the thesis mentor, the thesis mentor will approve the thesis. The mentor will assign the BSPS Thesis II grade. (3); Prerequisites: PSC 410 and PSC 412

PSC 412 
BSPS Thesis Research I. BSPS Thesis Research I is the foundational course for students pursuing the Thesis Option within the BSPS program. Under guidance of the faculty mentor and as outlined in the thesis proposal produced in BSPS Thesis I, students will develop a novel research hypothesis, design and execute experiments to test the hypothesis, and accumulate and analyze data. The foundational work of BSPS Thesis Research I is expanded upon, refined, and brought to conclusion in BSPS Thesis Research II. (3)PSC 413 BSPS Thesis Research II. This course is a continuation of work begun in BSPS Thesis Research I. Students will continue to refine their laboratory skills, address problems identified in previous studies, and pursue new avenues of research opened up by their experiments. At the conclusion of BSPS Thesis Research II, students will present their findings in seminar and detail their findings in writing as part of the course BSPS Thesis II. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 412

PSC 421 
BSPS Thesis Seminar. Students pursuing the thesis option will register for BSPS Thesis Seminar concurrently with BSPS Thesis 2. Once the thesis research is completed, the research results will be summarized in written form in the style of a manuscript that can be submitted for publication. The student will also prepare and present a seminar that describes the complete thesis research project, from the background research that led to the formation of the research hypothesis, to the discussion of the results of the studies. The seminar will be presented in a public forum and should represent the culmination of the thesis project. (1)

PSC 431 
Foundations of Pharmaceutical Sciences. This introductory course is required for BS Pharmaceutical Sciences students. The course reviews the foundational topics in Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry, setting the stage for subsequent courses in Pharmacology/Medicinal Chemistry. Topics covered include principles of receptor and ligand interactions, dose response curves, pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs), pharmacodynamics (drug concentration and effect), biotransformation of drugs, enzyme polymorphisms, and factors affecting drug action. (2); Prerequisites: PSC 311,PSC 312, PSC 321 and PSC 322

PSC 432  
Infectious Disease Pharmacology. This course is required for all BS Pharmaceutical Sciences students enrolled in the Pharmacology concentration. The course covers major anti-infective drug classes including antibiotic, antimycobacterial and antiviral drugs. The mechanism of action, adverse effects, structure activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics of model compounds from each drug class will be considered. (2); Prerequisite: PSC 431

PSC 433 
Neuropharmacology. This course is required for all BS Pharmaceutical Sciences students enrolled in the Pharmacology concentration. The course focuses on drugs that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems including autonomic drugs,antipsychotics, antidepressants, and analgesics. The mechanism of action, adverse effects, structure activity relationships,and pharmacokinetics of each drug class will be considered. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 431

PSC 434 
Cardiovascular Pharmacology. This course is required for all BS Pharmaceutical Sciences students enrolled in the Pharmacology concentration. The course covers cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory drugs. Specific topics to be covered include antihypertensive, diuretic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-arrhythmic drugs, NSAIDS and other anti-inflammatories. The mechanism of action, adverse effects, structure activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics of each drug class will be considered.(3); Prerequisite: PSC 431

PSC 441 
Pharmacokinetics. This course presents concepts and mathematical techniques used to describe the time course of drug disposition in biological systems using compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. Biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic principles used in the selection, dosing, monitoring and evaluation of drug therapy are introduced. These principles are applied to evaluation of drug literature and development of drug dosage regimens of selected classes of drugs for individual patients. (3); Prerequisites: PSC 341 and PSC 342

PSC 445 
Drug Discovery and Development. This course multi-disciplinary course will cover all components of drug discovery and development, from the bench to the bedside, including pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, biochemistry,immunology, formulation, delivery, pharmacokinetics, regulatory affairs, clinical research, marketing, business development,sales, medical affairs and patent filing. The course will be presented by the instructor and by experts from various pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (moderated by the instructor). (3); Prerequisites: PSC 311, PSC 312, and PSC 431 or PTP 401 or concurrent enrollment in PSC 431 or PTP 401

PSC 446 
Regulatory Science. Regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards and approaches to assess the safety,efficacy, quality and performance of drugs, biologics, medical devices, cosmetics and other products. This course introduces and examines the current US feral regulatory system on the regulated products, and discussed the functions and operations of the FDA. The current trend of the Harmonization of worldwide pharmaceutical regulations is also discussed. The course also introduces the practice of regulatory affairs, and teaches the principles, ethics and strategies of this profession. (3); Prerequisites: PSC 341

PSC 447 
Fundamentals of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development and Clinical Trials. This is a multidisciplinary course that focuses on the in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug metabolism (PPDM) evaluations of lead compounds, as recommended by the FDA and ICH guidelines. The course is designed to increase understanding of the important roles and applications of the three disciplines in pre-formulation, pre-clinical and clinical investigations of future therapeutic entities; including small molecules and biologic drugs. The course consists of lectures, take–home assignments, in class participation and discussion, and data analysis. The complementary topics of the course include toxicokinetics, safety pharmacology, biopharmaceutics, drug delivery systems and experimental design. The emphasis is on the role of PPDM in drug development from target selection through clinical trials. (3); Prerequisite: 3rd year curriculum of BSPS, or PharmD programs, or permission of the course coordinator

PSC 451 
Scientific Literature Evaluation (SLE). This course will teach students how to evaluate scientific literature and prepare a seminar. The course will be divided into sections of approximately 24 students and each section will focus on a specific topic or body of knowledge. Students will have multiple opportunities to give short presentations that focus on data analysis and literature evaluation. Students will develop evaluation and presentation skills throughout the course, initially by presenting sections of scientific articles selected by faculty and, subsequently, by choosing articles, themselves, for presentation. Throughout the course, student’s continual and active engagement in discussions focused on critical analysis of the scientific literature will build confidence and comfort in thinking critically about the scientific literature and promote evidence based decision making. Discussions will include appropriateness of sample populations selected, comparison groups used, medical ethics, statistical significance, clinical significance and evidenced based recommendations. This course will thus provide students with multiple opportunities to present and discuss data and to present a scientific seminar. (1); Prerequisite: PHD 410

PSC 452 
Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal Club. This course is designed to enhance the ability of students to critically evaluate scientific articles published in juried scientific journals. Articles will be selected from current scientific literature in a variety of disciplines in the pharmaceutical sciences, including drug delivery, drug development, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, pharmacogenomics, pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry and pharmaceutics. All participants will read and critique the articles. Each student will present at least two articles per semester. (1); Prerequisites: PSC 311, PSC 312,PSC 321, PSC 322 and PSC 431 or PTP 401 or concurrent enrollment in PSC 431 or PTP 401 or permission of the instructor

PSC 631 G 
Foundations of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The course reviews the foundational topics in Pharmacology, Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry, setting the stage for subsequent courses in the MSPS program. Topics covered include principles of receptor and ligand interactions, dose response curves, pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs), structure-activity relationships, pharmacodynamics (drug concentration and effect), biotransformation of drugs and factors affecting drug action, principles of computational modeling of receptor-drug interactions, and rational drug design.(3); Prerequisites: PSC 311, PSC 312, PSC 321, PSC 322, or Permission of instructor

PSC 635 G 
Pharmacologic Regulation of Signal Transduction. This course focuses on signaling pathways that transfer signals across cell membranes and within the cell and allow for regulation and integration of all aspects of cell function. Key signaling molecules, including receptors, G-proteins, second messengers, and transcription factors, as well as the small molecule ligands, activators and inhibitors, will be examined. Concepts and methodologies that have facilitated elucidation of the function of these molecules will be introduced through discussion of past and current landmark papers. The goal of the course is to provide students with a fundamental understanding of signaling pathway function and regulation. This understanding will be placed in the context of drug action through examination of examples of a variety of drugs which act via modification of signaling pathways. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 631 G or Permission of instructor

PSC 636 G 
Neuronal Systems Pharmacology. The course covers autonomic drugs, CNS drugs, including anesthetics, sedative hypnotics,antidepressants, antipsychotics, anti-seizure drugs, analgesics, and anti-Parkinson agents, and drugs used to treat endocrine disorders, including calcium disorders, hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid problems, anti-androgens, anti-estrogens and progestins, and drugs used to treat diabetes and hypoglycemia. The mechanism of action, adverse effects, structure activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics of each drug class will be considered. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 635 G or equivalent

PSC 645 G 
Drug Delivery Principles. This course studies physicochemical and biological principles of drug delivery and pharmaceutical product design. These principles of physical pharmacy and biopharmaceutics are the foundations for drug candidate selection,pre-formulation, formulation design, and drug delivery systems. Targeted drug delivery and advanced systems for various routes of administration are also discussed by case studies. (3); Prerequisites: PSC 341/342 or PSC 431/631 or equivalent

PSC 646 G 
Regulatory Science. Regulatory Science is the science of developing new tools, standards and approaches to assess the safety,efficacy, quality, and performance of healthcare products, according to the definition by the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA). This course provides an overview of the regulatory process from new discoveries to commercialization, for drugs,biologics, and other healthcare products. We examine the history and current status of the US federal regulations, and review the current operations and policies of the FDA. Global regulatory strategies are discussed by highlighting common scientific foundations, principles, rationales, and relationships of the laws, ethics, economics and clinical practice. Students learn this emerging discipline through active learning activities in classroom, such as dialogues with instructors and guest speakers, simulation games, case studies, presentations and group debates.  The course is designed as interdisciplinary learning experiences for senior undergraduate, graduate, PharmD and other professional students, who are interested about a regulatory career or applying regulatory principles, knowledge and skills to research, business or healthcare practice.(3); Prerequisite: PSC 341 or 645 or equivalent

PSC 651 G 
Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal Club. This course is designed to enhance the ability of graduate students to critically evaluate scientific articles published in juried scientific journals. Articles will be selected from current scientific literature in a variety of disciplines in the pharmaceutical sciences, including drug delivery, drug development, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, pharmacogenomics, pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry and pharmaceutics. All participants will read, present, and critique the articles. Each student will present at least two articles per semester. (1)

PSC 661 G 
Research Rotation. Students will complete a one semester laboratory rotation in order to facilitate the selection of a thesis research advisor. Students will select a potential mentor based on interests and availability of openings in any given lab. Assignments, based on student preferences, will be made by the Director of the Pharmaceutical Sciences graduate program. Students are expected to spend a minimum of 10 hours per week on laboratory research during the rotation. Students will complete a rotation through a minimum of 1 lab and a maximum of 2 labs during the semester. They are to meet with the faculty advisor at least one hour per week for basic introduction to laboratory principles and practices, and to discuss their research. Students are required to complete reading assignments as directed by the faculty advisor and write a report of the research data and present a ten minute talk summarizing their research at the end of the rotation. (2); Prerequisite: Permission of program director

PSC 672 G 
Experimental Design and Data Analysis. This course is required for all Pharmaceutical Sciences graduate students and provides students with a basic knowledge of experimental design and biostatistics. Students will learn how to design experiments and analyze the results. The course will cover single factor experiments, multiple factors, full factorial and fractional factorial designs and screening designs, the fundamentals of hypothesis testing and relevant biostatistics. (2)

PSC 732 G 
Cardiovascular Pharmacology. This course provides an in depth review of cardiovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. The course reviews current concepts on the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular function and the mechanism of action of drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases. (2); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 733 G 
Pharmacology and Molecular Genetics of Cancer. This course includes a study of the molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis, including the role of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and pathogens (viruses and bacteria). Genomic approaches to the study of both hereditary cancers and somatic mutations will be explored. The pharmacology of current cancer therapeutics and the rational design of novel anti-cancer drugs will be discussed throughout the course. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 631 or permission of the instructor

PSC 736 G  
Immunopharmacology. Immunopharmacology will explore the immune system from a pharmacological viewpoint. After a short review of the basic concepts of immunity, the course will closely examine the role of antibodies in immunodiagnosis, and immunotherapeutics. The immunotherapeutics portion of the course will examine the roles of vaccines and antibodies in modifying immune responses as well as drugs which modify immune responses in allergy and asthma, cancer therapies,immunosuppressives, biologics, immunotoxicology and dietary and plant immunomodulators. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 738 G 
Environmental Health: Toxicology, Regulation and Economics. This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to and overview of the key areas of environmental health. Using the perspective of the population and community, the course will cover factors associated with the development of environmental health problems. Students will gain an understanding of the interaction of individuals, communities, and economic activity with the environment, the potential impact on health of environmental agents, and specific applications of concepts of environmental health. The course will cover principles derived from core environmental health. The sequence of major topics begins with background material and the tools of the trade(environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, environmental policy and regulation). The course then covers specific agents of environmental diseases (e.g., microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation). Finally, applications and domains of environmental health are addressed (e.g., water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, occupational health,and injuries). (3)

PSC 739 G 
Introduction to Psychoneuroimmunology. This course examines the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems. It integrates a substantial number of disciplines, including genetics, immunology, medicine,endocrinology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology. It is an integrative approach to both research and health care. The course will also cover the physiological functioning of the neuroimmune system in health and disease, disorders of the immune system, such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, and how psychological states, such as anxiety and depression, impact the neurological and immune systems and lead to the development or exacerbation of infections, heart disease, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. (3); Prerequisite:PSC 672 G

PSC 741 G 
Pharmacokinetic Modeling. This pharmacokinetics course is an elective course for Pharmaceutical Sciences graduate students (Pharmaceutics Track). The course presents concepts and mathematical techniques for description of the time course of drug disposition in biological systems. The course also presents biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic principles used in the selection, dosing, monitoring and evaluation of drug therapy. At the end of the course the student should be able to find, obtain, understand, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize pharmacokinetic information and make informed, rational, and responsible evaluation of drug dosage regimens. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 742 G 
Drug Discovery and Drug Development. This is a translational and multi-disciplinary course that deals with all components of drug discovery and development from the bench to bedside and from concepts to molecules to medicines. This will include pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, formulation, delivery, pharmacodynamics,pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomic, regulatory affairs, clinical research, clinical trials and evidence based medicine, marketing, business development, sales, medical affairs and patent filing. This course will be presented by the course coordinator who will be supported by experts from various pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and will include a number of case studies to illustrate the development of several blockbuster drugs. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 631

PSC 743 G 
Pharmaceutical Stability. This course studies the factors that influence drug stability, the mechanism of degradations, the methods to predict the stability, and strategies of stabilization. It also combines fundamentals and applied perspectives on the pharmaceutical stability assessment, which introduce the methods to analyze stability and determine shelf-life. An overview of the current industrial practices for stability testing is also provided. (3) Prerequisite: Permission of theninstructor

PSC 744 G 
Special Topics in Pharmaceutics. This   course is designed to allow students to study diversified subjects of current interest which are not available in other courses. The subjects are related to physical pharmacy, biopharmaceutics, drug delivery, drug development and/or formulation design. The course is conducted through lectures, tutorial studies, library assignments and/or research projects in the selected areas of advanced study. The student, under faculty advisement, must propose a course plan to the MSPS program director. (1-3); Prerequisites: PSC 645 G or permission of the instructor

PSC 756 G 
Chemical Biology. Chemical biology is a diverse and evolving field involving chemical approaches to studying and manipulating biological processes. In this course, students will develop an understanding of chemical reactions utilized in the synthesis of small molecules and macromolecules, and of the chemical principles underling enzyme functions and receptor pharmacology. The topics incorporated in this course are essential to understanding how drugs are currently developed in the pharmaceutical industry. At the end of the course, students give an oral presentation on a current topic in chemical biology of their choice. (3); Prerequisites: PSC311 and CHE211 or permission of the instructor PSC 757 G Quantitative Drug Design. The principles of subcellular pharmacokinetics are combined with the methods for estimation of drug-receptor binding energies for known and unknown receptors to provide a comprehensive quantitative approach to the construction of structure-activity relationships. The emphasis is placed on understanding the principles of quantitative descriptions of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and drug-receptor binding in terms of drug structure and properties. The methods for prediction of the physicochemical properties of drugs, which are important in drug development, are analyzed in detail. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 758 G 
Molecular Modeling. In this course, students will gain hands-on experience with the molecular modeling software that is used in pharmaceutical industry. The following operations with protein structures will be learned: adding missing hydrogens to X-ray structures, assigning proper charges to amino acid residues, neutralizing the charges and preparing the structures for drug docking. The gained skills will include sketching molecular structures, docking them into macromolecular targets and performing simple binding energy predictions. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 760 G 
Macromolecular Structure. This course will cover the fundamentals of macromolecular structure from the biochemistry of amino acids to protein motifs and folds, quaternary structure, post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions.We will cover techniques available to gather information on protein structure (NMR, circular dichroism and X-ray crystallography) and methods used to investigate the interaction of proteins with other molecules (tryptophan fluorescence,isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR). This course will familiarize students with available proteomics tools including BLAST, Pymol, PDB and Expasy and will provide students with the tools necessary to make connections between the structure and function, and deduce information about uncharacterized proteins. (3); Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

PSC 761 G 
Thesis Research. This course consists of an independent research project which has been designed by the student, in consultation with the thesis advisor. The thesis advisor and thesis committee will be selected. The student will then develop a thesis proposal which will be approved by the thesis committee. Once the work described in the thesis proposal has been completed, the student will write and defend the thesis. It is anticipated that the thesis research will be completed over 2-3 semesters. (1-8)

PSC 771 G 
Industrial Internship. Students will learn practical aspects of one or multiple fields of the pharmaceutical sciences in an industry setting. They will have opportunity to further develop technical skills while applying theoretical and course-learned background. Drug synthesis, study of mechanisms of action of drugs, formulation and pre-formulation,pharmacokinetics, quality control and regulatory affairs are examples of specific fields in which students may gain experience through this internship. (3-6); Prerequisites: PSC 631 and permission of the advisor

PSC 750 G 
(formerly PSC 861) Capstone. The capstone writing project is run as an independent study course. Students will select a topic in conjunction with the faculty instructor and prepare a written review of the existing scientific literature that is relevant to the chosen topic. The review should focus on a particular scientific problem that is actively being investigated and should define and discuss the scope of the problem, the alternative approaches that are being taken to address the problem, the substantive findings that have resulted from these approaches, and how these findings have shaped the current state of knowledge of the problem. (3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

PSC 755 G 
Systems Biology in Drug Discovery. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of current approaches used for global-scale transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses with focus on applications in drug discovery and development.Topics such as mass spectrometry-based biomolecular structure analysis, biomolecule separation/fractionation techniques,chemical and metabolic labeling approaches for quantitative analysis, and bioinformatic tools for interpretation of “omic” data sets will be covered.  The goal of the course is to provide the student with the foundation necessary to understand the technical details of omics-based experimental design as well as to analyze and interpret large-scale data sets for a variety of drug discovery and development applications. (3); Prerequisite: PSC 311

PHARMACY SKILLS

PSL 331 
Pharmacy Skills I. The Pharmacy Skills Courses prepare Doctor of Pharmacy students to provide pharmaceutical care by encouraging students to practice skills used in the process of medication preparation, delivery and patient monitoring. This series of six required courses is designed to instill values, attitudes and skills that enable lifelong intellectual,personal and professional growth. Students will exercise critical thinking, communication, self-learning abilities,responsible use of ethics, and social interaction. The courses are designed as a progressive sequence as students continue to build on concepts throughout the series. The minimum passing grade for all Pharmacy Skills courses is 70%. In Skills I the focus of the course is on pharmaceutical calculations, extemporaneous compounding of common dosage forms and basics of patient communication. Students will become familiar with USP Chapter 795 requirements and will learn to accurately prepare compounded preparations. The laboratory component allows practice of these principals and skills. Skills I concentrates on preparing the student to practice as a community pharmacy intern. This series of courses is offered by the Department of
Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings. (2); Prerequisite: Doctor of Pharmacy Students only

PSL 332
Pharmacy Skills II: The focus of this course is on professional communication with patients and other healthcare professionals, medication dispensing, patient counseling, and extemporaneous compounding of capsules, suppositories and PLO gels. Students will learn fundamental federal and state law related to community pharmacy. The laboratory component allows practice of these principals and skills at the benchtop, in the mock pharmacy and in the private counseling rooms interacting with standardized patients. Skills II completes the students’ preparation to practice as a community pharmacy intern.The minimum passing grade for this course is 70%. This series of courses is offered by the Department of Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings. (2); Prerequisite: PSL 331

PSL 431 
Pharmacy Skills III. In Skills III, previous concepts are reinforced and the focus of this course is the compounding of sterile preparations. Students will become familiar with compounded sterile preparation and administration, calculations, IV equipment and the requirements of USP Chapter 797 and 800.  The laboratory component allows practice of these principals and skills. Skills III concentrates on preparing the student to practice as an institutional pharmacy intern. The minimum passing grade for this course is 70%. This series of courses is offered by the Department of Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings.(2); Prerequisites: PSL 331, PSL 332

PSL 432 
Pharmacy Skills IV.  In Skills IV previous concepts are reinforced and the focus of this course is on inter-professional and patient communication, practical calculations, and discharge counseling. Students will become familiar with medication preparation and distribution, formulary management, documentation, error prevention techniques and technology commonly seen in institutional settings. The laboratory component allows practice of these principals and skills. Skills IV completes the students’ preparation to practice as an institutional pharmacy intern.  The minimum passing grade for this course is 70%. This series of courses is offered by the Department of Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings. (2); Prerequisites: PSL 331, PSL 332, PSL 431

PSL 531 
Pharmacy Skills V.  In Skills V, previous concepts are reinforced and the focus of this course centers on advanced patient care. Students will learn how to conduct a chief complaint focused history, perform targeted organ system-specific physical examinations, triage patients to the appropriate level of care, and develop appropriate treatment plans for commonly encountered disease states. Students will also become familiar with home diagnostic and monitoring devices. The laboratory component allows practice of principals and skills learned in lecture and integrates cumulative therapeutics knowledge through formative and summative, simulated patient assessments. Skills V concentrates on preparing the student for APPE rotations. Students will also complete the APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery certificate training program. This program is designed to educate students about the professional opportunities for vaccine advocacy and administration. The purpose of this certificate training program is to prepare students with comprehensive knowledge, skills, and resources necessary to provide immunization services to patients across the life span.  The completion of this course will result in a certificate that satisfies the legal requirements for the training needed for pharmacists to immunize in all 50 states. The minimum passing grade for this course is 70%. This series of courses is offered by the Department of Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings. (2); Prerequisites: PSL 331, PSL 332, PSL 431, PSL 432

PSL 532 
Pharmacy Skills VI.  Skills VI is the capstone course that brings together all of the previous knowledge and skills from the Pharmacy Skills sequence. The focus of this course is for students to demonstrate competency as they integrate and apply previously learned knowledge, skills and abilities to identify, document, and / or solve individual patient’s drug-related and medical problems. Assignments will be a review of calculations and compounding and support the work identifying and resolving patient related problems as well as supporting the general focus of improving pharmacist decision making processes. PS VI completes the students’ preparation for APPE rotations. The minimum passing grade for this course is 70%. This series of courses is offered by the Department of Pharmacy Practice, and faculty who facilitate discussions and demonstrations are licensed pharmacists that have practiced in a variety of health-care settings.(1); Prerequisites: PSL 331, PSL 332, PSL 431, PSL 432, PSL 531

PSYCHOLOGY

PSY 101 
General Psychology (formerly LAS 221). This survey of basic concepts in psychology acquaints students with the principles of behavior underlying motivation, learning, personality development and normal and abnormal adaptive processes, as well as with experimental and applied approaches to the understanding and modification of behavior. The course emphasizes current concepts regarding factors that influence overall human adjustment. (3)

PSY 140 
Mind and Morality (formerly LAS 142). This course explores how psychology helps us to understand what moral reasoning and behavior are all about. Can psychology explain significant aspects of human life? To answer this question, the course will examine “morality” as an expression of human social existence, “moral philosophy” as a justification for moral beliefs and principles, and “the mind” as the primary context of moral reflection and argument. In the end, psychology and ethics will be brought together. (3)

PSY 181 
Human Development (formerly BIO 181). This course traces human development chronologically from conception to late life. At each major life stage, the changes a person experiences on the biological, psychological (cognitive and emotional), and social levels will be explored, as well as the unique problems and issues that affect people in that stage of life. End of life issues and bereavement will also be covered at the end of the course. (3)

PSY 210 
Abnormal Psychology (formerly LAS 226). This course explores psychopathology from several different theoretical perspectives,including behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic and biological. Diagnostic classification, etiological theories and treatment approaches to psychopathology will be reviewed. Special emphasis will be given to a multi-cultural analysis and to incorporation of the current DSM diagnostic system. (3); Prerequisite: PSY 101

PSY 215 
Becoming Human (formerly LAS 324). This course explores central aspects of being human. Students examine masculine and feminine identity and their roles in the world as worker, doer, healer and quester. The purpose of the course is to deepen awareness of what it means to become fully human. Readings are drawn from philosophy, psychology and literature. (3); Prerequisite: PSY 101

PSY 321 
Health Psychology. Building upon basic psychological principles learned in General Psychology, this course introduces the field of health psychology by examining the mental, emotional, social, and behavioral factors that affect the onset,recovery, and prevention of physical illnesses. The role of health services and patient-provider relations in health promotion and disease will also be examined. (3); Prerequisite: PSY 101

PSY 440 
Death and Dying. This multidisciplinary course discusses empirically-based concepts related to death and dying. Topics covered include: cultural and historical differences in concepts of death, dying, grief, and bereavement; individual differences related to preparation, adjustment and coping; the impact of the circumstances of death on the bereaved; and death in the modern era (i.e., hospice and palliative care, physician-assisted suicide, media coverage of mass death, etc). Students are challenged to examine their own personal attitudes toward the issues discussed, including but not limited to psychological, medical, legal, ethical, religious, and cultural aspects of death, dying, grief, and bereavement. This course incorporates informational lectures, class discussions, small group activities, and individual projects designed to aid students in personally relating to the material. (3); Prerequisites: PSY 101, Junior or Senior Level Status/P1 or above

PHARMACOTHERAPY/PHARMACOLOGY/MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

PTP 410
PTPM Respiratory. PTPM 2 is a 1-credit course focused on respiratory disorders. This is one in a series of 11 courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology,pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g.respiratory disorders conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by both basic-science and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of respiratory disorders. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals,recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (1); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PHM 329

PTP 425 
PTPM Endocrine. PTPM 3 is a 2-credit course focused on the endocrine system. This is the sixth in a series of eleven courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pharmacology,medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology  and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. endocrine diseases are the focus of this course). Taught by basic-science and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well  as practice-based therapeutics of endocrinology disorders. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370

PTP 431 
PTPM GI/Nutrition. PTPM 4 is a 2-credit course focused on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. This one in a series of 11 courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. GI conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by both basic-science and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug, nutritional and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of GI disorders. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (2); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370; PHM 329

PTP 440 
PTPM Cardiovascular. PTPM Cardiovascular is a 4-credit course focused on the cardiovascular system. This course is part of the PTPM series that examines therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy.  Building on concepts learned in Physiology/ Patho-physiology I & II and Molecular Foundation of Drug Action I, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. cardiovascular conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by both pharmaceutical and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of cardiovascular disorders. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (4); Prerequisites: PHM 329,PSC321, PSC322, and PSC369

PTP 446 
PTPM Infectious Disease. PTPM 5 is a 4-credit course focused on the treatment of infectious diseases. This is part of a series of courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/ Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. Infectious diseases are the focus of this course). Taught by both basic-science and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug effects and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of infectious diseases. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (4); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370; PHM 329

PTP 515 
PTPM RheumatologyOncology. PTPM Rheum/Onc is focused on the therapeutic approach to rheumatic, hematologic and oncologic disease states. This is one in a series of modules that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states in an interdisciplinary approach taught by both pharmaceutical science and pharmacy practice faculty, while building upon previous courses such as Immunology, Physiology/Pathophysiology I&II, Introduction to Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry. Course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of rheumatic, hematologic and oncologic disorders. Using both a lecture and patient case-based format,this module will emphasize evidence based selection of therapeutic and supportive care management, patient-centered pharmaceutical care based recommendations, and managing complex disease states and patients. In addition, this module will expand on students' patient assessment skills, patient outcome monitoring, documentation of patient centered care plans and patient counseling. Skill development in this course will prepare students for integrated problem solving workshops,experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (3); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370; BIO 313, BIO 314

PTP 525 
PTPM Nephrology. PTPM Nephrology is a 2-credit course focused on the renal system. This is one of a series of courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology,pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Introduction to Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (nephrologic conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by both basic science and clinical faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of nephrologic disorders. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series,experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (2); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370, PTP 440, PSC 321, PSC 322

PTP 528 
PTPM Genitourinary. PTPM 3 is a 2-credit course focused on the genitourinary system. This is the eighth in a series of ten courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. genitourinary conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by clinical faculty (the basic science components of this course will be addressed during the PTPM2 Endo course), course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics of the genitourinary system. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education,and pharmacy practice. (2); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370; PSC 321, PSC 322

PTP 549 
PTPM Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders. PTPM Neuro/Psych is a 4-credit course focusing on neurologic/psychiatric diases . This is the ninth in a series of ten courses that examine therapeutic management of clinical disease states within an interdisciplinary sequence consisting of pathophysiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacotherapy. Building on concepts learned in Physiology/Pathophysiology I & II and Principles of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry, courses in this series are organized by therapeutic area (e.g. neuro/psych conditions are the focus of this course). Taught by clinical faculty and basic science faculty, course content is integrated to promote an analytical understanding of fundamental drug and disease concepts as well as practice-based therapeutics addressing common neurologic and pyschiatric diseases. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based selection of rational therapeutic goals, recommendations, and outcome monitoring while using an integrated knowledge of drug properties and clinical diseases. General knowledge and skills development in this course will prepare students for problem-solving workshops, other courses in the PTPM series, experiential education, and pharmacy practice. (4); Prerequisites: PSC 369, PSC 370; PSC 321, PSC 322

SOCIOLOGY

SOC 101 
Sociology. The ultimate goal of the course is to develop an understanding of the complexity of the world around us and gain new insight into how that social world functions to shape our behavior. By examining the methods, theories and areas of interest to sociologists, students will gain a general understanding of how they, as scientists, analyze the social world.The beginning of the course will (1) explore the assumptions, theories and methods that sociologists use for gaining greater insight into the social world, (2) look at the basic processes that shape the interactions we engage in every day, and (3) make critical application of theories and methodologies to everyday events and interactions. The remainder of the course will be devoted to the discussing and incorporation of major topical areas within sociology using the theoretical underpinnings.(3)

SOC 110 
Introduction to Culture and Society (formerly LAS 151). This course introduces the student to global diversity, theoretical ways of looking at cultural behaviors and understanding one’s own ethnocentrism. Through film, ethnographic readings and textbooks, this course will give the student a broad view of societies of varying levels of complexity, focusing on systems of kinship, gender, economics, politics and religion, among others. (3)

SOC 115 
Introduction to Medical Anthropology (formerly LAS 283). Introduction to Medical Anthropology introduces students to the cultural foundations of illness and curing. The course focuses on non-Western societies and how these societies perceive and treat states of health and disease. The course presents issues of health and disease within a framework of ecological,evolutionary and cultural systems and provides a background in current theoretical perspectives in anthropology. (3)

SOC 120 
Introduction to Public Health. This course will offer an introduction to public health, history of public health and public health education, and a focus on population health/social determinants of personal and community health. There will be an overview of the health care delivery system, the necessary human resources, and other public health topics will be addressed.(3)

SOC 140 
Family Violence (formerly LAS 204). This course is designed to provide the student with varied perspectives on family violence including historical, legal, cultural and political views, to familiarize the student with current trends and issues in partner (relationship) abuse, elder abuse, physical child abuse and child sexual abuse, to inform the student about current research on the nature and dynamics of family violence and to increase the student’s understanding of the criminal justice, mental health, health care and social service responses to the victims, offenders and family members who are impacted by violence in the family. (3)

SOC 145 
Race and Ethnicity in America (formerly LAS 274). This course seeks to examine, describe, and explain the conditions and issues that surround a number of racial and minority groups in contemporary America. A variety of theoretical, historical,and topical concerns will be addressed during the course including an introduction to sociological study of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the social, economic, political, historical, and demographic forces that have shaped the experiences of different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. This course will also address the processes that gave rise to race and ethnicity as important forces in the United States and the sociological perspectives that govern the understanding of these forces. (3)

SOC 210 
Aging and Society. This course will provide an introduction to the sociology of aging using the life course perspective.Examining various theoretical frameworks and perspectives will help students to explore a variety of issues related to an aging population. We will explore the demographic, social and health aspects of aging from both a macro-level and the individual experiences of an aging population. In addition we will review organizational, community, and public policy responses to an aging population. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 102

SOC 290 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. SOC 290 is generally reserved for introductory level experiences and/or smaller scale projects. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

SOC 301 
Research Methods for the Social Sciences. This course provides students with exposure to a variety of research methods in the behavioral and social sciences. It will focus on the research process from crafting a research question to gathering data and analyzing the results through both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The course will emphasize applied research methods and we will develop skills in understanding and interpreting data. At the end of the course, students will have had exposure to a broad range of data collection methods as applied to a variety of health issues and problems. (3); Corequisite: ETH 320

SOC 310 
Evolution of Society and Human Health (formerly LAS 912). This course is designed to educate students about the relationship between society, culture and human biology through examination of the history of human health as it has been influenced by urbanization. The course begins with the earliest human societies and traces the history of human health in hunting/gathering societies, agricultural societies, medieval cities, industrial cities and cities today. Approximately half the course focuses on health in modern cities and developed nations. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

SOC 315 
Social Aspects of Health Care (formerly PAD 333). This course educates students about the relationship between human health and society, economics, politics, ideology and biology through examination of the history of human health policy and contemporary issues. (3); Prerequisite: HUM 201

SOC 325 
Medical Sociology. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the general field of medical sociology. Research and analysis of the medical environment from a sociological perspective will be explored. The course will focus on the major concerns of medical sociology: social facets of health and illness, the social functions of health institutions and organizations, the relationship of systems of health care delivery to other social systems, and the social behavior of health personnel and consumers of health care services. By examining the methods, theories, and research studies within the field of medical sociology, students will be begin to appreciate and understand the  role of social and cultural factors in health, research on the use of health services, the health professions, health-care organizations, and major issues in public policy and health care. (3)

SOC 330 
Culture of Disability. This course will address psychological, sociological and cultural perspectives on disability. Sociological and cultural perspectives focus on the social construction of disability, the policy, legal and medical aspects of living with a disability, as well as specific populations and how they experience disability. The course focuses on experiences and depictions of disability in the past, present and looks to the future, specifically in terms of the role of technology in the disability community. What does it mean to be "disabled"? What impacts a person's experience of disability? How is the health care experience different or the same for a person with a disabilty than a non-disabled person (e.g.,communication challenges, living arrangements, role of a caregiver/health care proxy)? (3); Prerequisite: SOC 101

SOC 335 
Global Health. In Global Health students study health in the world’s least economically developed countries (LDCs) by examining how narrative, gender, culture, the environment, and economics affect health and health outcomes. This course facilitates a global perspective that helps students both to engage with the complexities of health in the world’s LDCs and to improve overall cultural competency. (3); Prerequisite: COM 115, HUM 201 or permission of the instructor

SOC 350 
Disparities and Social Justice. This course, generally, will take two approaches to understanding social identities as related to health and healthcare services. First, social identities (e.g., race, class, gender, sexuality, disability) and the related power structures (e.g., oppression, privilege, racism, sexism, homophobia) are theorized. Then, students apply this knowledge to cultivate a richer understanding of healthcare disparities. Finally, the course moves towards creative correctives in healthcare advocacy, research in medicine and public health, and development of just and equitable healthcare policy that is informed by the background of these complex, often harmful, social forces. This complicated work integrates methods and research from multiple disciplines (e.g., humanities, feminist and critical race theory, social sciences, public health, disability studies, and biomedical sciences), and from Western and non-Western sources. This presents ethical issues relative to different methods of measuring health inequalities and related policies. (3); Prerequisite: SOC 101

SOC 420 
Health and Social Policy. This course presents an introduction to health policy, i.e., the various ways in which the government plays a role in health and in the provision of health care. Health policies can impact quality of life in terms of accessibility, cost, quality of health care; safety of food, water, and environment; and the right to make decisions about our health. These issues are tied to health policies. (3); Prerequisite: SOC 101

SOC 480 
Undergraduate Field Experience. The undergraduate field experience is designed to enable Health and Human Sciences students to gain valuable skills and experience in a variety of public health settings. Working in a voluntary capacity, you are able to select a site that provides an opportunity to gain insight and knowledge regarding your career interests and goals.Through this course students will gain valuable professional experience. Internships are obtained by the students with consultation from ACPHS faculty and staff. (1-9); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

SOC 490 
Undergraduate Research. This course provides an opportunity for students to obtain a hands-on research experience under the guidance of a faculty member. The number of credit hours and scope of the project undertaken are at the discretion of the faculty member involved. SOC 490 is generally reserved for more advanced research projects of students with prior research experience. Students are expected to perform three hours of research related work per credit hour earned. Faculty members may expect students to present their research in venues either internal or external to the college. (1-3); Prerequisite: permission of the instructor

UNION GRADUATE COLLEGE

UGC MBA 510 
Financial Accounting. An introduction to the generally accepted accounting principles of financial accounting as applied to publicly reported financial statements. Emphasis is to be placed on understanding the application of “generally accepted accounting principles” to financial statements. This course is designed for individuals with no prior academic or professional education on the topic of financial accounting. [Union Graduate College]

UGC MBA 512 
Managerial Accounting and Finance. An introduction to the tools and techniques of financial analysis and decision-making.Topics covered include financial statement analysis, cost classification and behavior, cost-volume-profit analysis,incremental cost analysis, time value of money, capital budgeting, and financial planning. Spreadsheet programs are used in this course. Prerequisite: Financial Accounting UGC MBA 510. Students are expected to be proficient in the use of Microsoft Excel®. [Union Graduate College]

UGC MBA 635 
Project Management. A project is a one-time or infrequently occurring operation with a unique goal, a limited lifespan, and limited resources. This course will focus on the basic components of project management, including statements of work,project selection, leadership and team building, communication, budgeting, resource scheduling, metrics and closure. Students will have the opportunity to develop a project plan of their own choosing using MS Project as well as explore current issues in project management through case discussions. [Union Graduate College]