Robert M. Levin, Ph.D.



Post-doctoral Fellowship, Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Pennsylvania
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania (Pharmacology)
M.S., University of Pennsylvania (Pharmacology)
B.S., Albright College

Research Interests

Dr. Levin's principal areas of research are: Lower Urinary Tract Physiology, Pharmacology, and Pathology. 

Bladder dysfunction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common affliction of aging men. BPH can initiate changes associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Urgency, frequency, and nocturia are irritative voiding symptoms. Reduced flow rate, reduced micturition pressure, overactive bladder syndrome, increased duration of micturition, and incomplete emptying are signs of obstructive dysfunction. Although these symptoms are related to the enlarging prostate; the medical problems are related to the effects of a partial urethral obstruction on bladder function. In man, it is difficult to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which obstructive bladder dysfunction secondary to BPH occurs. However, many of the functional changes associated with human bladder pathology can be induced in a rabbit model of bladder partial outlet obstruction.

Women are subject to several specific urological dysfunctions that are uncommon in men. Three such dysfunctions are interstitial cystitis (IC), recurrent urinary tract infection, and incontinence. IC is a debilitating disease whose symptoms include urgency, frequency, and severe pain upon distension of the bladder (during normal filling). We have animal models of these dysfunctions that we use to identify the etiology of the dysfunctions, and to develop novel and effective therapies.

Selected Publications

Lin, W-Y, Radu, F., Schuler, C. Leggett, R.E., Mannikarottu, A. and Levin, R.M. Effect of ovariectomy and estrogen therapy on the free fatty acid content, endogenous lipase activity, and phospholipid content of the rabbit urinary bladder. Urology.

Chou, E, C-L, Whitbeck, C., Borow, A., Burden, O., Mays, P., and Levin, R.M. The effect of intravesical ketoprofen on Ach-evoked urinary bladder contractility and hyperreflexia in the anesthetized rabbit model. Int. J. Urology and Nephrol. 39: 1055-1059, 2008.

Juan, Y-S, Hydery, T., Mannikarottu, A., Lin, W-Y, Kogan, B. A., Whitbeck, C., Leggett, R.E. and Levin, R.M. Coenzyme Q10 protect against ischemia / reperfusion induced biochemical and functional changes in rabbit urinary bladder, Mol Cell Biochem. 311: 73-80, 2008.

Lin, W-Y, Rehfuss, A., Whitbeck, C. Levin, R.M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 and a-lipoic acid on the response of the rabbit urinary bladder to repetitive stimulation and in vitro ischemia Urology 72: 214-219, 2008.

Whitbeck, V., Chichester, P. Sokol, R., and Levin, R.M. Role of Nitric Oxide in Urinary Bladder Function: Effect of L-Arginine in the presence and absence of partial outlet obstructions. Urol. Internat. 78: 30-36, 2007.

Juan, Y-S., Onal, B., Broadway, S., Cosgrove, J., Leggett, R.E., Whitbeck, C., De, E., Sokol, R., and Levin R.M. Effect of castration on male rabbit lower urinary tract tissue enzymes. Mol Cell Biochem. 301: 227-233, 2007.

Lin, W-Y, Rehfuss, A., Whitbeck, C., Juan, W-S., Chichester, P., Mannikarottu, A. and Levin, R.M Effect of Letrozole on female rabbit Urinary bladder function. British J. Urol. Int. 100: 1391-1395, 2007.

Lin AD, Levin R, Kogan BA, Whitbeck C, Leggett RE, Kearns C, Mannikarottu A. Alteration of contractile and regulatory proteins in estrogen-induced hypertrophy of female rabbit bladder, Urology, 68: 1139-1143, 2006.

Levin RM, Whitbeck C, Sourial MW, Tadrous M, Millington WR. Effects of dextromethorphan on in vitro contractile responses of mouse and rat urinary bladders. Neurourol Urodyn. 25: 802-807, 2006.

Lin AD, Levin R, Kogan B, Whitbeck C, Chichester P, Sokol R, Mannikarottu A. Estrogen induced functional hypertrophy and increased force generation of the female rabbit bladder. Neurourol Urodyn. 25:, 473-479, 2006.

Faculty Emeriti
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Albany Campus